*** See microwave section for rectenna power transmission to MUAV’s

*** See UAV section for miniature generators on MUAV’s

*** See Rockets-Thrusters for on-board 300 kw generator systems

 

*** New items (01/14/2001) are in blue

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES

120 Centennial Ave.

Piscataway, NJ 08854 Phone:

PI:

Topic#: (609) 734-2441

Zane Shellenbarger

BMDO 00-005 Title: High Efficiency InAsSbP Thermophotovoltaic Cells Abstract: The IR Devices, Modules, and Materials Group at Structured Materials Industries (SMI) proposes the development of high efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on InAsSbP material. Working with Sarnoff Corporation, SMI recently demonstrated a high-efficiency InGaAsSb TPV cell with a cut-off wavelength of 2.4 microns and is developing a 1.8/2.4 micron tandem TPV cell. The overall efficiency of these cells when used with a ~1000 ÝC or lower temperature blackbody heat source could be greatly improved by extending the cut-off wavelength out past 2.5 microns. This is difficult in the InGaAsSb system due to a miscibility gap in the solid composition. The use of InAsSbP material for the active region of the TPV cells will extend the cut-off wavelength into the 2.5-3.0 micron range. In the Phase I program, we will determine the most promising structure for a high-efficiency InAsSbP TPV cell. When fully developed, this technology will result in significantly higher performance of TPV energy conversion from lower temperature heat sources including low temperature burning fuels such as wood, conventional furnace burners, jet exhaust cowlings or rocket nozzles and even automotive engines. This program will provide cost-effective, high-efficiency InAsSbP TPV cells for space power and other commercial and military applications. Specific applications include combustion-fueled portable battery chargers, co-generation of electricity from furnaces and nuclear reactors, and power for deep space missions utilizing radioisotope heat sources.

 

DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC

309 Williamson Square

Franklin, TN 37064 Phone:

PI:

Topic#: (615) 595-6665

Jeffrey Paine

BMDO 00-005 Title: Simplified Solid-State Thermal Power Generation Abstract: Solid-state thermal power generation technology for remote missile defense sites and monitoring locations will provide effective long-term solutions for remote power needs. The simplified thermal power generator operates using the concepts of a thermal alkali-metal heat pump. A working fluid is produced by melting alkali metals at high temperatures. The working fluid is pressurized because of the vaporization pressure that develops during the heating process. The high pressure fluid is forced through a ceramic material in an ionic-transport process to produce the electric potential. As the fluid is moved through the system, the electric power produced by the unit is efficient to the level of 30%. Given that current commercial solar cells are only efficient to 5 or 10%, the solid-state thermal cell is significantly more efficient and as simple to implement. The units can be heated by nearly any source of effective heat production: fossil fuels, solar, and geothermal can all be used to power the unit. The unit has no moving parts except for a working fluid that flows under its own vaporization pressure as it is heated. The cost of the thermal cells will also be significantly lower than comparable solid-state technology. The unit will be useful in commercial and military remote sites, ground ballistic missile defense vehicles, and homes or businesses removed from the electric power grid. The military will be able to use it as a portable power generator on many remote missions where ease of use, compactness and fuel insensitivity is important. The unit might also be made cheap enough such that it can be made disposable or expendable for short missions or where return weight must be reduced.

 

MSE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.

200 Technology Way P. O. Box 4078

Butte, MT 59702 Phone:

PI:

Topic#: (406) 388-0542

Jean-Luc Cambier

BMDO 00-001 Title: Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation in Space from a Repetively Detonated Device Abstract: MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) proposes to evaluate and test the concept of a hybrid device combining a Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) with a Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) generator for electrical power generation in space. The proposed system would be designed to provide the power for Direct Energy Weapons (DEW), such as compact Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) High-Power Microwave (HPM) beams or Kinetic Energy Weapons (KEW) launched from railguns. Power extraction from stored chemicals provides more power density and flexibility than solar cells. The PDE is a novel propulsion technology which can be adapted to pulse power generation. The PDE can be approximated as a cycled, constant-volume combustion process leading to higher temperatures and therefore higher gas conductivity than constant-pressure combustion. The device is lightweight, robust, can easily be started up, and does not require high chamber pressurization. Preliminary evaluations of the hybrid concept suggest that good performance is possible. The concept presented herein improves on the earlier study by proposing a new design that would greatly improve the power to weight ratio. The concept also has a number of other important applications leading to substantial advances in aerospace propulsion and power. The proposed PDE-MHD generator concept can be used for pulse power production, with applications initially focused on space-power generation for DEWs. If successful, other applications deriving from the technology may include the following: 1) on-board power generation for aerospace vehicles; 2) hybrid PDE-MHD ejector concepts for propulsion; and 3) repetitive, non-destructive Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) generators for battlefield and mine field applications.

 

MSE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.

200 Technology Way P. O. Box 4078

Butte, MT 59702 Phone:

PI:

Topic#: (406) 388-0542

Jean-Luc Cambier

BMDO 00-001 Title: Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation in Space from a Repetively Detonated Device Abstract: MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) proposes to evaluate and test the concept of a hybrid device combining a Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) with a Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) generator for electrical power generation in space. The proposed system would be designed to provide the power for Direct Energy Weapons (DEW), such as compact Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) High-Power Microwave (HPM) beams or Kinetic Energy Weapons (KEW) launched from railguns. Power extraction from stored chemicals provides more power density and flexibility than solar cells. The PDE is a novel propulsion technology which can be adapted to pulse power generation. The PDE can be approximated as a cycled, constant-volume combustion process leading to higher temperatures and therefore higher gas conductivity than constant-pressure combustion. The device is lightweight, robust, can easily be started up, and does not require high chamber pressurization. Preliminary evaluations of the hybrid concept suggest that good performance is possible. The concept presented herein improves on the earlier study by proposing a new design that would greatly improve the power to weight ratio. The concept also has a number of other important applications leading to substantial advances in aerospace propulsion and power. The proposed PDE-MHD generator concept can be used for pulse power production, with applications initially focused on space-power generation for DEWs. If successful, other applications deriving from the technology may include the following: 1) on-board power generation for aerospace vehicles; 2) hybrid PDE-MHD ejector concepts for propulsion; and 3) repetitive, non-destructive Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) generators for battlefield and mine field applications.

 

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.

602 Explorer

Austin, TX 78734 Phone:

PI:

Topic#: (512) 261-0098

Jon Mayes

BMDO 00-001 Title: Marx Generator-Based PFN Systems Abstract: Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) are rapidly becoming attractive due to their reusability and the fact that unlike mechanical weapons which rely on magazines of explosive shells, these weapons rely on power supplies. The most attractive aspect of DEW lies in the fact that an electromagnetic missile is delivered at nearly the speed of light, negating the advantage of increasing velocity of tactical missiles. High power microwave (HPM) devices such as the Virtual Cathode (Vircator) or the Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO) required large amounts of energy at several hundred kV, requiring large, massive, and complex pulsed power machines as their primary energy source. These systems are plagued with problems associated with high voltage switching and massive step-up transformers, and are primarily based on conventional Pulse Forming Network (PFN) technologies. This proposal details PROPRIETARY alternatives to the HPM source methods in the form of a Marx generator-based power supply. The proposed systems offer compact solutions that are man portable, capable of being battery powered, and offer higher repetition rates than their convention counterparts. The development of the Marx generator-based PFN systems is a relatively inexpensive method for producing repetitive, high powered, trapezoidal shaped electromagnetic pulses for driving low impedance microwave devices. In the military market, this man portable system could further control the battlefield, as well as provide portable missile defense systems. The same system is compact enough to be mounted in a missile, a conventional gun shell, or on board a fighter aircraft.

LYTEC LLC

1940 ELK RIVER DAM RD P. O. BOX 1581

TULLAHOMA, TN 37355 Phone:

PI:

Topic#: (931) 393-4500

John T. Lineberry

AF 00-211 Title: An MHD APU for Airborne Platforms Abstract: MHD power generation poses best means for high power, lightweight supply for airborne systems to power directed energy weapons (DEW). MHD has the highest power density of all competing power technologies and is available on demand for either continuous duty or repetitive pulse operation. State-of-the-art technology exists for realization of flightweight MHD power systems. This coupled with advances in HTSC and high temperature materials makes this system the best candidate power source for development for DEW's. This SBIR Phase I will address the feasibility of MHD power airborne platforms. Both conventional and advanced MHD power concepts will be screened. Studies will be conducted to define system criteria for different MHD power concepts including stand-alone combustion driven APUs , ram/scramjet coupled MHD power generators, ram driven MHD generators, and external hypersonic aircraft MHD power generation concepts. The results of these studies will define innovative airborne power concepts as applicable to Air Force flight missions. Phase I will perform feasibility study of MHD power concepts as applied to high speed aircraft platforms. It will define application and devices/systems for development in Phase II. Phase II will produce design criteria for a flight hardware targeted for a near term flight test program.

 


SUNPOWER CORP.
435 Indio Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 991-0910
Pierre J. Verlinden
BMDO 99-005
Title: Point-Contact Silicon Photovoltaic Cell for Space Applications
Abstract: SunPower proposes a high-efficiency, radiation-tolerant, thin silicon photovoltaic cell for space power generation. Compared to competing III-V (GaAs) photovoltaic cells, this cell is expected to provide nearly equivalent output power at about one-quarter of the cost. Based on preliminary simulations, we expect that the cell will achieve 18.8% beginning-of-life (BOL) AMO efficiency. Using SunPower’s experimentally validated degradation models for lifetime surface recombination velocity, and emitter saturation current, we predict 15.7% end-of-life (EOL) efficiency after 1E15/cm2 of 1 MeV electron irradiation. At EOL, the cell is expected to provide over 80% of its BOL output power, making it as, or more, radiation tolerant than a typical GaAs/Ge cell. The specific power of this cell is projected to be more than 1.0 kW/kg at EOL, which is significantly, better than competing III-V cells. The cell design incorporates very thin float-zone (FZ) wafers with back-side point-contacts, similar to photovoltaic cells SunPower has commercialized for solar airplane and terrestrial concentrator applications. Phase I will fund process development, fabrication of prototype cells, and preliminary radiation tolerance testing

ESSENTIAL RESEARCH, INC.
23811 Chagrin Blvd
Cleveland, OH 44122

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 433-5586
Navid Fatemi
ARMY 97-150
Title: Tactical, Multifuel, Man-Portable Battery Charger
Abstract: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) electrical generation is a technology well-suited to the development of highly efficient, compact, lightweight, and reliable sources of electricity. Tn TPV electrical generation, heat generated by combustion is converted to radiant energy by an emitting surface, then to electrical energy by a photovoltaic (PV) cell. The bandgap of the PV cell is tailored to convert the bulk of the infrared (IR) spectrum being emitted. Making the spectrum more monochromatic leads to higher electrical conversion efficiencies; therefore, filtering elements are placed between the emitter and cells to reflect out-of-band radiation back to the combustor for recycling. Theoretically, TPV electrical generation can exceed 35%. Importantly. TPV generators are totally static; with no moving parts they produce no noise or vibration and can be highly reliable. Essential Research, Inc., teaming with Teledyne Brown Engineering-Energy Systems, propose to develop a rugged TPV power supply to meet the operational requirements requested in the Army SBIR solicitation: person-portable, 200 W output power, and utilizing liquid, logistic fuels. Our technical approach is to develop a combustor that heats a graybody SiC emitter to moderate temperature (1500 K) . The IR radiation is tailored with a shortpass filter that reflects the near out-of-band radiation back to the combustor for recycling. The in-band radiation is converted to electricity with narrow-bandgap PV cells made from InGaAs deposited on InP. BENEFITS: We plan to prototype a 200 w, man-portable battery charger at the end of Phase II. The unit will be capable of generating electricity from burning tactical, liquid military fuels. The unit will have use in the military as a reliable, silent battery charger and remote power generator. Commercial applications include recreational boating and camping, and off-grid power generation.

SIGMA LABS, INC.
10960 N. Stallard Pl
Tucson, AZ 85737

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Wolfgang Decker
DARPA 97-051
Title: Thin Film Thermoelectric File for Energy Harvesting
Abstract: This SBIR Phase I proposes the development of thin film thermoelectric piles for energy harvesting devices. The patented thin film technology, which is successfully used for the production of nanolaminate high density capacitors, allows to produce thermopiles with an extreme high density of active thermocouples, typically app. 500 couples per mm laminate thickness. The serial connection of the thermocouples performed during the production process allow to generate electric energy with a convenient voltage level at temperature gradients of a few degrees only. The proposed investigation will develop an energy harvesting device based on thin film thermopiles. In the Phase I work the basics for the adaptation of the nanolaminate process with the required modifications for the production of thermopiles will be evaluated. The thermopile structures obtained from this work will be tested thoroughly to explore the potential and the limitations of the process. The Phase II work will install an automated process for the high speed production of thermopile laminates. Additionally a complete concept for energy harvesting devices including power management unit and energy storage system will be developed.

AZ TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4901 Corporate Dr, Ste 101
Huntsville, AL 35805

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 837-9877
Howard Dunn
DARPA 97-051
Title: Non-Solar Remote Environmental Energy Power Generator
Abstract: Remote field seismic or vibrations sensors typically use solar power or batteries to power operations. DARPA has identified the need to augment or replace these power sources with a device that produces power independent of solar energy. Specifically, DDARPA is searching for new low power device technology that harvests energy from existing field environments. AZ Technology's novel concept is design of an array type device, less than 50 cm3 in volume, that will use available low temperature environmental energy to generate greater than 10 milliwatts of power during times when solar dependent generators are non-functional (night or north facing hill). This power will be used to trickle charge a capacitor or battery to provide sensor power or pulsed 1-5 watt data transmission. During Phase I, AZ Technology will design and demonstrate, through prototype development, an innovative thermoelectric based field remote environment energy scavenging thermoelectric generator (ESTEG). Phase I efforts will completer a thermal/power analysis on our innovative design. Feasibility will be demonstrated by fabricating a prototype module that generates non-solar power related energy at greater than 0.20-0.5 milliwatts/cm3.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES, INC.
120 Centennial Avenue
Piscataway, NJ 08854

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Zane A. Shellenbarger
BMDO 99-005
Title: Greater than 30% Efficient Monolithic Tandem Antimonide TPV Cells
Abstract: The IR Devices, Modules, and Materials Group at Structured Materials Industries (SMI) proposes the development of high efficiency tandem cells based on antimonide materials for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. The structure of this device will be a dual-junction monolithic tandem cell. Working with Sarnoff Corporation, SMI has recently demonstrated a high-efficiency InGaAsSb TPV cell with a cut-off wavelength of 2.3 microns. This cell represents the state-of-the-art with internal quantum efficiencies over 90% at a peak wavelength of 2.0 microns. To significantly improve upon this device, a next generation of dual junction tandem TPV cells with conversion efficiencies in the range of 30 to 40% need to be developed. The innovation of the proposed program will be development of the first tandem cells for TPV applications that provide greater than 30% energy conversion efficiency. In the Phase I program, we will determine the most promising structure for a high-efficiency tandem TPV cell, building upon our existing InGaAsSb device for the bottom cell. Experimental work will utilize our existing epitaxial growth and processing technologies for fabricating these devices. When fully developed, this technology will result in a significantly higher performance, lower weight, cost-effective improvement for low temperature TPV generating systems.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Ave., P.O.Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. M. Z. A. Munshi
BMDO 99-005
Title: High Energy Density Metallized Film Capacitors
Abstract: This Phase I program is to identify and perform research on novel film dielectric materials capable of being highly energetic with large dielectric constants, exhibiting excellent dissipation factor, indulation resistance, breakdown voltage, reliability and clearing ability. Such film material could also be used for high-rep-rate applications. The novel polymer dielectric material is expected to provide at least three folds improvement in energy storage density compared to what is presently available for PVDF dielectric material. This work will attempt to identify material which are highly energetic and yet more stable than PVDF. The proposed research activities focus on the preparation of these new polymers as well as fabrication, characterization and testing of fully wound capacitors

HESTON CONSULTING CO., INC.
430 Lebanon Road
West Mifflin, PA 15122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 462-9877
Lawrence J. Long
BMDO 99-005
Title: Superconducting and Cryogenic Stators for Lightweight Cryogenic Generators
Abstract: There is an emerging class of post cold war airborne and groundbased military weapons and surveillance systems that will require unprecedented amounts of electrical power. Unless high power electrical generators are developed that weigh no more than one fifth as much as the lightest available generators, these systems will not be possible. While superconducting generator technology has always promised very lightweight generators, these devices have been too unreliable for military applications. Many of the design problems were caused by using cryogenic rotors with warm (non-cryogenic) stators. Reliable cryogenic generators must use cryogenic stators and cryogenic rotors. Advances in high temperature superconductors (and other cryogenic conductors) may finally allow us to build practical cryogenic generators. This proposed SBIR program will design two one-megawatt cryogenic stators, using state-of-the-art conductor and cooling technology. One stator will be designed for low voltage missions (50-200 volts) and the other will be designed for high voltage missions (10,000-20,000 volts). The two interchangeable cryogenic stators will be designed to mate with a one-megawat HTS cryogenic rotor (being built by Heston Consulting in another BMDO SBIR program) to produce a complete cryogenic generator that is light, inexpensive and reliable enough for military applications.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
309 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Jeffrey S.N. Paine
BMDO 99-005
Title: Portable High Efficiency Power Source for Missile Technology
Abstract: DSM is proposing the use of a novel high efficiency AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter) as an increased efficiency power source for space missions and various ground applications. The AMTEC device is very flexible and adapts well to a variety of physical geometries. The proposed system can be easily adjusted and utilized in low earth orbit sensor satellite, or ground based assets. The size and configuration is similar to a battery. A proposed design is an energy converter with the following characteristics: efficiency of 20-40 percent, power to mass ratio greater than 0.5 kW/kg, no moving parts, low maintenance, high durability, efficiency independent of size, modular construction, and ability to use solar heat sources. AMTEC is compatible with many heat and fuel sources. AMTEC unit has high power density at 150 to 450 kilowatts/m3. Predicted cell power densities are near 80 watts per kilogram. AMTEC is environmentally friendly (no residue) and there is minimal risk of operational failure

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0927
Dennis Darcy
DARPA 95-001
Title: Modular Power Controller for Electric Drives
Abstract: SatCon Technology Corporation proposes to develop the next generation power controller module aimed at the integrated control and power functions desired for the Power Electronics Building Block (PEBB) which has broad goverment and commercial interest. Building on power hybrid technology advances made by SatCon during participation in Chrysler Corporation's "Patriot" Hybrid Electric Race Car Program, SatCon Proposes to reduce the integrated power controller package size by an order of magnitude by combining the power and control electronics into a single module. SatCon's efforts on the "Patriot" Program resulted in packaging densities of 20 kW per pound and 440 watts per cubic inch, which compare quite favorably to the prior stat-of-the-art which was approximately 1/4 of these levels. The proposed approach further integrates and simplifies the power and control electronics design and results in a building block amenable to a wide variety of power levels. Anticipated Military Benefits: The development of compact, modular electronic power controller drive systems provides a broad enabling technology base for a variety of military applications including electric and hybrid tactical vehicles, more-electric aircraft, and shipboard integrated power systems. Similar benefits for commercial applications within the automotive, machine tool, process and utility idustries offer the promise of the high volume production and reduced cost necessary to foster broad implementation.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES, INC.
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 885-5909
Yabo Li
BMDO 96-005
Title: InGaAsSb/GaSb Thermophotovoltaic Cells for 2.5 Micron Application
Abstract: Satellites, submarines and remote field units all need efficient and economical sources of electrical power. Our proposed solution is to convert thermal energy directly into electricity through the use of thermophotovoltaics. In Phase I we will demonstrate the growth and fabrication techniques for a metastable InGaAsSb-based thermophotovoltaic cell (TPV) operating out to 2.5 micron (~1000 C), which will enable efficient electrical power production from either exothermic reactions (fuel combustion) or radioisotope thermal sources. The TPV cell will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth techniques and consist of an InGaAsSb double-heterostructure fabricated on a 2" GaSb substrate. The InGaAsSb composition will be lattice matched to the GaSb substrate to eliminate dislocations at the growth interface, a common problem with InGaAs based TPV cell technologies. A p-on-n configuration will be used to reduce overall free carrier absorption for the incorporation of a back surface reflector. TPV cells comprising InGaAsSb quaternary material systems and GaSb substrates are expected to have better performance characteristics than existing cells at this operating wavelength as a result of decreased dark currents and the ability to incorporate effective back surface reflectors for reduced operating temperatures. The Phase I efforts will utilize Sarnoff's previous experience developing AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb quantum-well lasers operating out to 2.7 micron, to establish the growth parameters for appropriate material compositions and doping profiles followed by cell manufacturing and testing at SMI. SMI will optimize the front and back contacts for high current extraction and transmission at the surface and maximize reflection at the back plane. The cells will be evaluated for both material and performance characteristics. In Phase II, the structures will be further refined for increased efficiency by modeling the performance characteristics of the Phase I cells. Characteristics such as the spectral response and series resistance will enable optimization of crucial structure parameters including optimum layer thickness and doping. We will also test the cells using a prototype fuel module.

INTEGRATED CRYOELECTRONICS, INC.
7 Hiolltop Road
Kennett Square, PA 19348

 
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 444-1304
George Johnson
DARPA 96-018
Title: Nanophase Composites as a Route to Pratical High ZT Polymer Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract: Some polymers exhibit Seebeck coefficients that are 100 to 1000 times higher than those of semiconductors used in today's thermoelectric devices. Unfortunately these polymers have low electrical conductivity that results in a figure-of-merit, ZT, that is much lower than do the conventional semiconductors. Attempts to increase the conductivity of polymers by doping or micro particle addition have not proven successful in increasing ZT. The addition of low volume concentrations of nanophase metal particles (size ranging from 5 to 100nm) to conventional insulating polymers greatly increases the electrical conductivity without increasing the thermal conductivity of the composite. The anomalous conductivity enhancement demonstrated by nanophase metal particles may allow non-shunting conductivity increase in polymers with high Seebeck coefficients that would result in a high ZT for the composite material. Since theory does not allow prediction the transport properties of such nanophase materials, ICE, Inc. proposes to attempt to prepare a composite of a nanophase metal in an intrinsically conducting polymer that is known to have a high Seebeck coefficient.

JX CRYSTALS, INC.
1105 12th Ave. NW, Suite A2
Issaquah, WA 98027

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 392-5237
Lewis Fraas
DARPA 96-073
Title: Low Cost, Low Bandgap Thermophotovoltaic Cells
Abstract: Using new low bandgap GaSb photovoltaic cells, JX Crystals has recently demonstrated functional thermophotovoltaic prototype generators. While it is generally believed that the cost of materials makes non-silicon photovoltaic cells prohibitively expensive unless one can develop thin film cells, this thesis is wrong for thermophotovoltaic cells. Specifically for the GaSb cell, the Ga and Sb material contribution to the electric power cost is only 7.3 cents per Watt. The real cell costs in high volume production are associated with process costs, and the GaSb cell process can be made inexpensive by copying the silicon solar cell process. This has already been done by using diffusions for junction formation and converted silicon Czochalski pullers for crystal growth. JX Crystals is proposing to undertake several additional process improvements imitating the simple silicon solar cell process, at every step from crystal growth to wafer sawing to wafer handling. By imitating the silicon cell process, JX Crystals believes that Ga Sb thermophotovoltaic cells can be made in high volume production at a cost of under $1 per Watt.
NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
2849 East Elvira Road
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 294-7115
L. Yang
DARPA 96-018
Title: Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract: Thermoelectric devices, converting thermal energy into electrical energy or electrical into thermal energy, offer inherent advantages such as reliability, simplicity, flexibility, quietness, and environmental benigness. The efficiency of the thermal/electrical transformation is determined by the figures-of-the-merit ZT of the thermoelectric materials at a given service temperature. Currently-used thermoelectric materials have ZT ≤1, limiting the efficiency of the energy transform (typically less than 5%) and thus the applications of thermoelectric materials and devices. Nanomaterials Research Corporation (NRC) proposes to develop high performance thermoelectric materials with ZT >> 1. With the engineered nanostructures, the proposed thermoelectric materials will have significantly low thermal conductivity, improved Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, thus leading to a drastic increase of the figure-of-the-merit. Phase I will establish the proof-of-concept. Phase II will seek optimization ofthe materials design and process, and fabrication of prototype thermoelectric devices from the novel thermoelectric material. Phase III will commercialize the technology.

NEOENERGY CORP.
P.O. Box 3034
Lawrence, KS 66046

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 832-1549
Kyle Wetzel
DARPA 96-026
Title: Small Wind-Powered Electric Generators for Data Collection Devices
Abstract: Opportunities exist to scavenge energy available in the wind to provide electrical power to many militarily significant, long-endurance, stand-alone data collection tasks, such as collection of meteorological data. This will greatly extend the no-maintenance endurance of data collection systems. This research project will develop and demonstrate two novel approaches to compactly packaging high-efficiency small (40 W) wind turbines. A horizontal axis wind turbine for relatively strong winds will feature rotor blades which hinge at the hub so they can be folded back for compact storage in transportation. A vertical axis wind turbine for moderate winds will feature flexible blades which can also be compacted into a small package for transportation. The principal technical objectives of the Phase I research program are to achieve significant improvement in the efficiency of micro-scale wind turbines, to develop a compact packaging for the small wind turbines, and to demonstrate the suitability of smallwind turbines to provide power for remote data collection devices. Phase I tasks include designing and testing new airfoils and rotors and designing the electrical systems.
OCEAN POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1590 Reed Road
West Trenton, NJ 08628
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 730-0400
George Taylor
DARPA 96-026
Title: Hydro-Piezoelectricity: A New Approach to Self Powered, Remote Data Acquisition Systems
Abstract: The solicitation addresses the need for an electrical generator to be used for continuously supplying power to a rechargeable battery or capacitor which powers a remote data acquisition system completer with an RF data link for data telemetry. Further, for compelling reasons, it is desired that the recharge energy be acquired locally from the environment, i.e. either surface wave energy or water currents. The proposed solution utilizes the concept of Hydropiezoelectricity whereby thin plastic sheets of piezoelectric material (PVDF) are employed to directly convert the large available mechanical energy to electrical power for recharging the storage device. The proposed Phase I effort consists of analysis and simulation tasks designed to determine both the technical and economic feasibility of the approach in typical shallow and deep ocean environments. A laboratory demonstration of the approach will be provided using power generation modules that are being developed by OPT as part of its efforts to exploit the technology commercially as a source of primary energy.

TRYMER COMPANY
14301 Bagdad Road
Leander, TX 78641

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 259-1141
Jon Schroeder
DARPA 96-073
Title: A Liquid Fuel Pocket-Sized Thermoelectric Generator for Battery Replacement
Abstract: The proposed work will explore possibilities for a less than 100 Watt-hour, pocket-sized, Trymer-"Type", thermoelectric generator that converts high energy-density fuels into electrical power for small system usage. Computer models and an actual small-scale working generator will be developed in Phase I and used to study and test the concept. Scavenged heat from an engine-exhaust manifold will also be a part of the small generator study, converting part of the exhaust heat energy into electrical energy to power small systems. Trymer developed a novel one-sized thermoelectric technology through SBIR and is currently manufacturing and selling a 27 pound, 5kW, 120 VAC generator worldwide for home use, recreation, construction and rural electrification. The proposed work will study the practicality of developing a much smaller unit, for dedicated, built-in power, for a variety of defense and commercial applications.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
John Flynn
DARPA 96-001
Title: Development of a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP)
Abstract: The electrical energy storage devices of hybrid elctric vehicles must be capable of being repeatedly and rapidly charged and discharged at widely varying rates while providing a high energy density/specific energy at high operating efficiencies. As a result, it appears likely that a combination of energy storage devices will be employed for such applications. With the widely varying needs of these subsystems and high performance needs of these applications a highly efficient management/control system such as the proposed synergetic battery pack (SBP) offers a number of significant advantages. This vastly superior system of management and control of operations down to the individual cell level provides enhanced life expectancy and capacity to batteries with large numbers of cells, allows the efficient generation of pure AC power for highly efficient high frequency induction motors, allows the effective mixing of capacitors and batteries of different chemistries, provides tremendous charging flexibility and exhibits good power factor characteristics. This SBIR Phase I Program will demonstrate the capabilities of this unique system and more thoroughly quantify the scope of the improvement when used with Lithium-ion cells.

ADVANCED MODULAR POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
4667 Freedom Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 677-4260
Dr. Terry J. Hendricks, P
AF 98-069
Title: Radiation-Tolerant, Eclipse-Compatible Solar AMTEC System
Abstract: Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converters (AMTEC) convert heat to electricity at high efficiency without moving parts at temperatures compatible with current solar receiver technology. A Phase I program is proposed which will deliver an integrated, high-temperature thermal storage/high-efficiency AMTEC cell system concepts and a small-scale thermal energy storage (TES) test article for materials compatibility testing. This will begin demonstrating a radiation-tolerant, eclipse-compatible solar AMTEC power systems for medium-earth and geosynchronous orbits. Solar AMTEC systems have the inherent advantage of tolerance to the high-energy radiation environments encountered in MEO and GEO. This Phase I work is directed toward development of high power solar AMTEC systems for future US Air Force (USAF) spacecraft missions using advanced multi-tube AMTEC cells. Successful development will provide AMTEC power systems for USAF missions, such as Space-Based Radar and Integrated Solar Upper Stage, requiring system power output of 10-50 kW, conversion efficiencies over 30%, cell specific powers over 100 W/kg, and system specific powers of 12-14 We/kg in medium-earth and geosynchronous orbits. This program will begin developing the efficient thermal energy storage systems, through basic materials compatibility research, which allow solar AMTEC systems to operate through eclipse phases of various MEO and GEO environments.

ESSENTIAL RESEARCH, INC.
23811 Chagrin Blvd., Ste 220
Cleveland, OH 44122

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 433-5586
Navid S. Fatemi
AF 98-083
Title: 40% Efficiency Concentrator Space Solar Cell
Abstract: Currently, tandem solar cells are used for high-performance space power generation and achieve conversion efficiencies approaching 25%. Relative to single-cell technology, the higher production costs of tandem cells are more than offset by their higher efficiency, and consequential reduction in array size and weight. The traditional tandem cell design is far from optimal, however. The bandgaps for the top and bottom cells are chosen to avoid growing lattice-mismatched epitaxial layers, instead of for achieving ultimate conversion efficiencies. We have demonstrated a buffer-layer scheme that enables InGaAs mismatched layers to be grown on GaAs without electrical degradation. By so doing, we can for the first time, grow dislocation-free tandem cells with optimized bandgaps. We propose the development of an ultra-high efficiency triple-junction concentrator cell. The structure of this new tandem solar cell will be: InAlP top cell, InGaP middle cell, and InGaAs bottom cell. It will be a monolithic, two terminal device fabricated on an inexpensive and rugged Ge substrate. The AMO efficiency of this cell under 10-100X ratios is projected to be approximately 40%. Because the growth and fabrication procedures for this cell will be identical to the commercially available InGaP2/GaAs-on-Ge tandem cells, it will be a commercially viable product.

EXPLOSIVE PULSED POWER INDUSTRIES
PO Box 4697
Los Alamos, NM 87544

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 672-1781
Robert F. Hoeberling
AF 98-218
Title: Pulsed Power Generators with Dynamic Connectors
Abstract: EPPI proposes to develop a test plan and design an experimental hardware testbed for discharging a cascaded Flux Compression Generator (FAG) pulser system in conjunction with explosively formed dynamic electrical connectors into an electrical load that meets the Munition Directorate's (AFRL/MN) requirements. Initial designs for compact seed and megajoule output FCGs are now being developed through a Phase II (contract F08630-97-C-0013) and will form the basis for this effort. The FCG designs previously developed will be modified to closely match into the electrical load defined by the dynamic connector's electrical parameters and the load as defined by AFRL/MN. The close matching of the FCG design can significantly increase the FCG performance. The connector design will be developed jointly by EPPI and a subcontractor to determine the space and time characteristics of the connector along with an estimate of the electrical parameters of the connector at various lengths. This effort builds on the FCG designs of the previously awarded Phase II and incorporates an entirely new aspect relating to the connectors and special requirements for coupling current onto the explosive dynamic electrical connector. EPPI will subcontract to Alliant Techsystms, a company with expertise in connector technology.

ORMET CORPORATION
2236 Rutherford Road, Suite 109
Carlsbad, CA 92008

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-7067
Xiaomei Xi
BMDO 98-007
Title: Compact, High Performance Thermelectric Modules for Thermal Management of Electronic Packaging
Abstract: As electronic devices become smaller, faster and more complex, their need for high heat dissipation turns into a pressing concern. Cumbersome cooling systems such as large heat sinks, forced air cooling and fluid cooling are impractical and need to be replaced by alternative, small size, light weight thermal management techniques. Particularly promising in this respect are thermoelectric modules due to their relatively light weight and potential for high heat dissipation. However, up to now, conventional thermoelectric materials and fabrication techniques have been costly and incapable of producing small size, high efficiency thermoelectric modules. This proposal suggests a novel set of composite thermoelectric materials as well as suitable designs that can be used to fabricate compact, high performance, light weight thermoelectric modules. The advantages of these novel thermoelectric materials are low cost, high productivity, low temperature process and capable of producing small size, high efficiency thermoelectric modules. These modules can be fabricated as individual thermoelectric modules as well as integrated into the electronic or other component that requires cooling to gain maximum effectiveness with minimum additional space. The fabrication techniques that will be used to fabricate high performance, compact thermoelectric modules are already established and will be modified for this application.

SUNDYE
7 Willow Dr.
Townsend, MA 01469

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 597-5146
Harry Clark
BMDO 98-016
Title: A New Ultra Light Weight Power Source
Abstract: This program will produce a portable, efficient, lightweight, flexible, cost effective solar power source. Small area, prototype devices, weighing the equivalent of less than 100 grams per square meter have been reduced to practice. At even modest efficiencies our system will be capable of producing hundreds of watts per kilogram. If necessary our system can employ hardened components for harsh military environments. It is anticipated that this military hardened system will still be less than 0.45Okg (~1 lb) in weight for a one square meter system, at a cost of less than $200 per unit. The flexible nature of the power source makes it possible to carry it in rolled or folded shapes. Rapid deployment of the power source can be achieved by simply unfolding or unrolling the device. The color of the device can be user defined from brown to blackish-green allowing mission specific camouflage. By applying an adhesive backing, our device can be placed on a soldiers apparel. It can also be placed over the wings of an aircraft without compromising aerodynamic integrity. Our system will be an enabling technology to increase mission range and duration for such military systems as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or remote field operations.

THORDIS CORPORATION
101 East Rembrandt Circle
Sandy, UT 84070

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 553-0360
Charles D. Baker
BMDO 98-016
Title: Solid State High Voltage Power Supply
Abstract: This project proposes to exploit the Giant Magnetostriction of Terfenol-D, along with the properties of piezoelectric ceramics to develop a new class of electric voltage transformer. The Magnetostrictive Piezoelectric Charge Pump (MPCP), when perfected, will provide a new option for the generation of high-voltage electricity. MPCP devices can be built in a wide range of configurations. The primary goal of this Phase I research is to define the factors that govern the design tradeoffs and limits of practical devices. The secondary objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a small (sugar cube size), lkV device that can be driven and controlled with a 5 volt supply. These small devices should be able to be configured in series and/or parallel arrays to provide a wide range of high-voltage power supply options. Because of their anticipated small size and rugged design, the MPCP devices can be used in long term storage weapons such as mines and missile launch tubes. As the primary actuator is activated by application of an external magnetic field, firing of the mechanism can be accomplished without mechanical contact. Phase I work is expected to validate the contactless operation of the MPCP.

INVENTEK CORP.
320 Willow Street
New Lenox, IL 60451

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(815) 485-9604
Thomas D. Kaun
NAVY 98-005
Title: Long Life Thermal Battery for Sonobuoy
Abstract: The prospects of significantly enhancing antisubmarine warfare (ASW) sonobuoys require exponential improvements in thermal battery capability. The fused-salt primary battery LiSi/CoS2 has shown tremendous progress in meeting the advanced requirements. Adaptation of recent advances in high-rate rechargeable thermal batteries provides a cost-effective approach for fully meeting size 'A' sonobuoy performance objectives. Specifically, an innovative super insulated container (vacuum/multifoil, which is 10-100 times as effective as Microtherm) promises to extend operating times beyond 4 hours to 12 hours. Reduced thickness of insulation would allow increased battery stack diameter and capacity (by 25%) to exceed 200 ping-seconds or power at greater than 13 kW. Rechargeable thermal battery peripheral seals, thinner (by 50%) fiber-separator; FeS2-CuFeS2 cathodes with 25% higher capacity density and lower-melting electrolyte are options for further increasing 'A' size sonobuoy battery performance and life. Battery life and performance could be doubled concurrently. Phase II would demonstrate the improved sonobuoy battery and aid in commercialization of the rechargeable thermal battery. A "dual-use" objective enables cost-effective deployment of the long life thermal battery for the 'A' size sonobuoy.

COVALENT ASSOC., INC.
10 State Street
Woburn, MA 01801

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 938-1140
K. M. Abraham
OSD 98-007
Title: Rechargeable Polymer Electrolyte Batteries
Abstract: Polymer electrolytes with significantly higher conductivity and stability than that of the present generation materials are needed to develop batteries for the individual soldier. To this end, Covalent Associates will develop single ion-conducting polymer electrolytes from enzyme catalyzed reactions of aromatic monomers with the carboxylic, phenolic or sulfonic functional groups. The unique structural features of these materials will provide them with high ambient temperature conductivity and their single ion Li+ conductivity will translate into high power for Li batteries. The polymer electrolytes synthesized will be characterized with respect to conductivity, electrochemical stability and membrane-forming properties. The usefulness of the electrolytes for rechargeable Li batteries will be determined by the construction and testing of Li/Polymer Electrolyte/LiNi0.7Co 0.3 O2 cells

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 469-8327
Dr. Mahmoud Aldissi
OSD 98-007
Title: Polymer Electrolyte through Enzyme Catalysis for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
Abstract: This SBIR Phase I project has for a goal the development of a solid-state polymer electrolyte for use in lithium-ion batteries via enzyme-catalyzed polymerization of monomers substituted with long ether segments. The high content of ether segments such as poly (ethylene oxide) or poly(ethylene glycol) is expected to yield high ionic conductivities when combined with the proper lithium salt. The solid-state rechargeable batteries using such an electrolyte offer potentially greater energy densities and a better cycle life than most conventional systems such as Ni-Cad or NiMH batteries, and eliminates the dangers associated with the use of liquid electrolytes. The Phase II effort will consist of the fabrication and characterization of the polymer. This should yield high quality films with a good dimensional and thermal stability and mechanical integrity necessary as a separator characteristic. The polymer's stability should provide the advantage of operating in a wide temperature range while maintaining its high conductivity. The Phase II program will focus on the optimization of the successful electrolyte, testing in lithium-ion batteries, and devising a scheme for large scale production of high performance, safe, environmentally benign energy sources for powering a variety of military

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Road
Wayne, PA 19438

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
David L. Chua, Ph.D.
OSD 98-007
Title: Enzymatically Catalyzed Polymerization (ECP) - Derived Polymer Electrolyte for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries
Abstract: This Phase I effort involves synthesis of polymers via enzymatically catalyzed polymerization (ECP). ECP-derived polymers frequently have broad molecular weight distribution with branching, which can be beneficial for ionic conduction. Ionic conductivity approaching 10 -3 S/cm can be demonstrated for "hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide ". The objective of this Phase I work is to identify promising electrolytes for Li batteries based upon ECP-derived polymers. A series of poly(p-phenylphenol)s will be prepared by ECP, and these materials will be characterized by IR, NMR spectroscopy, DSC, and gel permeating chromatography. This effort will evaluate the ECP-derived polymer in two configurations: solid sate and plasticized polymer electrolytes. These studied materials will also be processed both as stand alone separator and as component of the positiveand negative electrodes. 100 mAh cells will be built to assess the rate-capability and rechargeability utilizing meso-carbon, micro-bead as the Li-ion materials, and LiCo02 as the cathode material.

TECHDRIVE, INC.
2115 Butterfield Road, Suite LL66
Oak Brook, IL 60523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 415-0250
Dr. Robert Filler
OSD 98-007
Title: Solid Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Polyphenols
Abstract: The objectives are the preparation and evaluation of new solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), derived from polyphenols, which may be used in the development of improved light-weight solid-state lithium batteries that supply a high number of watt-hours in a small volume. Two types of phenol monomers containing polyether or perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid segments para to the phenolic function will be synthesized. The former will be obtained by partial O-alkylation of hydroquinone, while the latter will be prepared by ring-opening of perfluoropropane sultone by 4-lithionanisole. Enzymatic polymerization of these monomers will be carrier out and both resulting polymers (I and II) will be lithiated prior to building a lithium laboratory cell. Another polymer (III) which contains both polyether and perfluorosulfonic acid moieties, will be prepared by O-alkylation of Polymer-II. The polyether segments will provide increased solubility and permit generation of an ion-conducting region for formation of a Li ion complex. The perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid segments in Polymer-Ii will reduce the basicity of phenoxide ion, while contributing to stabilization of lithium complex. The SPEs derived from these polymers should exhibit high ionic conductivity and improved mechanical properties.

ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES, INC.
1675 W. Maple Rd.
Troy, MI 48084
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 362-4780
Dr. Scott J. Jones
AF 99-031
Title: Development of Ultralight, Thin-Film a-Si:H Based Solar Cells for Auxiliary Spacecraft Power Systems
Abstract: We propose to develop a novel, low-cost, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based modular to be integrated with a spacecraft thermal blanket for an auxiliary spacecraft power system. This new design is unique from ECD's present multi-junction module design in that an ultralight kapton substrate material and a monolithic cell interconnect design will be used which will allow for potential energy densities as high as 1000 W/kg. Small area (0.25 cm2) cells with this ultralight design have been fabricated with beginning-of-life AM0 efficiencies greater than 12%. Extensive tests have also demonstrated that the cell quality is resilient to electron and proton bombardment. In Phase I, we plan to scale-up the deposition process for 0.5 ft. x 0.5 ft. area cell fabrication. Deposition conditions will be optimized to achieve high cell performance and uniformity over large areas. Achievement of a highly reproducible process that produces 0.5 ft. x 0.5 ft. modules on kapton substrates with efficiencies greater than 8% will be achieved during the Phase I program. The process and module efficiencies will further be refined in Phase II of the program with the eventual goal of the implementation of the new module design and fabrication process into ECD's role-to role manufacturing line.