New items (01-14-2001) are in BLUE

JAYCOR, INC.

9775 Towne Centre Drive

San Diego, CA 92121 Phone:

PI:

Topic#: (256) 837-9100

T. Henderson

BMDO 00-001 Title: High Energy Density Capacitors Abstract: A high voltage high energy density capacitor will be developed utilizing Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond. CVD diamond is the best dielectric material available, and will be deposited and formed into layers to support fabrication of high energy density capacitors. Previous measurements indicate breakdown voltages in the 3 to 4 kV/micron range and a dielectric constant of 5.5. The high temperature capability of diamond and its non-dipole crystal structure will allow rapid charge/discharge cycles without damage. During Phase I, a single layer test capacitor 5 cm. in diameter will provide 1 nano-farad of capacitance and 20 Joules of energy with an energy density of 10 kJ/kg. Phase II will develop a multi-layer capacitor in a stacked configuration to increase the energy density, capacitance, and total energy stored in the capacitor. The Phase II device is expected to have energy density greater than 25 kJ/kg, provide 100 nano-farads capacitance, and store 200 Joules of energy. Directed Energy Weapons of all types need high energy density capacitors. These capacitors will provide the energy density required for directed energy systems including lasers, radar, high power microwave, and rail guns. Many systems are limited in their operational capability or portability due to the lack of a high energy density capacitor. As the energy density decreases, the physical size becomes an important consideration in discharge times and equivalent series resistance. In addition to the energy density advantages, the high temperature capability of diamond, and its non-bipolar nature provide more tolerance of rapid charge and discharge cycles. The energy densities achieved here will support hand held pulsed power applications as well as portable and fixed systems at much higher power levels. The commercial applications of high energy density capacitors are numerous and include all the normal high power and voltage applications such as RF and non-traditional applications such as non-lethal shocker technology for personnel control and pulsed power systems to disable automobiles in high speed chases. A major commercial application is expected to be short term energy storage in electric vehicles.

 

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.

111 Downey Street

Norwood, MA 02062 Phone:

PI:

Topic#: (781) 769-9450

Trung Nguyen

BMDO 00-005 Title: High Energy and Power Density Ultracapacitor Abstract: Antiballistic missiles strategic weapons require high power sources of minimum volume and weight that are capable of delivering high pulse energy on a suitable time scale. To meet these demands, a new generation of ultracapacitors is proposed that promise energy densities approaching battery levels without compromising power densities and cycle life of current ultracapacitors. The technology entails conversion of high surface area carbon to Ru oxide coated carbon of extremely large capacitance and low resistance. This is achieved via a unique aqueous, room temperature "plating" procedure, adaptable to existing double layer carbon electrodes. In initial experiments we demonstrated a 50 fold increase in capacity and a ten fold decrease in resistance of the carbon electrode. For the electro-deposited RuO2 the measured specific capacitance was almost twice the highest value reported for the RuO2 obtained by a sol-gel process. The high capacity and low resistance hybrid electrode are expected to result, after development, in ultracapacitors with energy densities of about 30 Wh/kg, power densities of about 40 kW/kg, and an operating life of > 10,000 cycles. In Phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of depositing thin film super high capacity hydrous RuOx over the entire internal surface of porous carbon electrodes and determine the properties of the novel composite structures. In Phase II we will optimize the electrode properties and scale up the fabrication process. We will design hybrid ultracapacitors and perform modeling calculations to optimize power and energy. The technology will then be demonstrated in complete prototype devices. The improved ultracapacitors will find wide spread military and commercial applications to supply pulsed power for lasers and communication equipment. Commercial applications include cellular telephones, two way pagers, scanners, memory protection in computer electronics, uninterruptible power supplies and load leveling for electric vehicles.

 

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
19365 Business Center Drive, Suite 8 & 9
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Chung-tse Chu
BMDO 96-005
Title: High Energy Density and Long Cycle Life Ultra-Capacitors
Abstract: Capacitive energy storage devices based on double-layer capacitance or pseudocapacitance have attracted much attention in recent years because of their wide variety of potential applications. High Surface area activated carbon represents a typical material for double-layer capacitance, while Ru0(2) is the best example of pseudocapacitance. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the development of electrochemical capacitors based on either activated carbon or Ru0(2). However, both materials have their disadvantages and limitations. Activated carbon has high surface area, but its double-layer capacitance is low. In addition, a large portion of the surface area is non-accessible to the electrolyte. It is difficult to achieve high energy density with activated carbon as the electrode material. With the conventional processing technology, it is difficult to make Ru0(2) with high surface area. More importantly, Ru0(2) is too expensive to be used for large scale commercial applications. Phase I will fabricate high surface area aerogels of low cost and conductive metal oxides as electrode materials for capacitive energy storage cells. We expect that electrochemical capacitors made from the aerogel materials will have light weight, high energy density, long life cycle, and low cost.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4950 Cloister Drive
Rockville, MD 20852

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
Title: Integration of 3D Camera and 3D Display Technologies
Abstract: Under separate efforts in the past, our team has developed technologies for a novel high speed 3D Camera and a true volumetric 3D display device. The unique features of our 3D Camera include the capability of providing instantaneous, full frame 3D range images at a CCD camera's frame rate (30 frames per second or faster), a capability that no other currently available 3D image acquisition systems or 3D rangefinders can achieve at any cost. Our 3D display device is able to generate volumetric 3D patterns in true 3D space by a set of activated voxels that emit light. Besides no moving parts and high voxel bandwidth, additional advantages of our 3D display approach are all angle of view, simultaneous multiple user views, large viewing volumes, flexibility in voxel size and shape, inherent parallel architecture, and without the requirement of viewing spectacles. The primary objectives of Phase I is to study the feasibility to seamlessly integrate a 3D camera system with a volumetric 3D display monitor, so that the integrated system can capture continuously 3D images of objects in the scene at a standard video rate (30 fps) and display the captured 3D images immediately on the 3D display monitor. In our phase I effort, we will focus on the interface and 3D data exchange protocol between the 3D camera and 3D monitor. Both current designs of the 3D camera and 3D monitor will be modified and optimized. Preliminary experiments will be performed to validate the interface design. In Phase II we will design a high speed 3D Camera/Monitor system suitable for real-time 3D image acquisitions and visualization.

 


Title: Optical Parametric Amplifier for Amplification of Remote Sensing
Abstract: This program will investigate the use of Optical Parametric Amplifiers (OPAs) for amplification of laser remote-sensing and communication signals. Lightec proposes to demonstrate a novel scheme by which very weak signals (as low as a single-photon) at 1.5 um to 3 um are amplified with at least 8 dB improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio prior to photodetection. This method holds considerable promise over conventional detection techniques and competing optical amplifiers. The proposed method for amplification of very weak signals has recently become feasible due to the availability of nonlinear crystal qualities that are conducive to efficient OPA action. It has also benefited from the recent commercial availability of single mode pulsed lasers which can be used to pump the OPA system. The Phase I effort will include experimental determination of optical losses, and amplification gain and efficiency for three different crystals in the 1.5 to 3 um wavelength range. Phase I will also demonstrate an OPA at 1.6 micron wavelength using a 1.06 micron pump laser, and will design a system for efficient continuously tunable amplification in the 1.5 to 3 micron wavelength range.

EIKOS, LLC
89 Richmond Street
Raynham, MA 02767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 880-0007
Dr. Paul Winsor, IV
BMDO 98-005
Title: High Energy Density Capacitors using Phosphine Oxide Dielectrics and Chemical Graft Electrodes
Abstract: Eikos has proposed to develop a high energy density pulse power capacitor based on use of Polyphosphine Oxide Arylene Ether polymers. The ultra-high energy density will be achieved not only by the high dielectric constant of the polymer but also by development of a novel chemical graft polymer Zgapless" electrode. Enhancements in electrode stability, power density, and stored energy density are potential results of incorporation of a chemically grafted conducting polymer as an electrode. These capacitor dielectric and electrode developments are expected to result in dramatic increases of dielectric energy storage to greater than 20 J/cc for high voltage energy discharge capacitors.

INORGANIC SPECIALISTS
P.O. Box 181
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4491
David W. Firsich
BMDO 98-005
Title: Carbon Foam and Pseudocapacitance Technology
Abstract: Electrochemical capacitors (supercapacitors) are rechargeable devices which deliver high powers for limited periods. The objective of this proposal is to provide new, low-cost approaches for significantly increasing the power and energy storage of carbon supercapacitors. We do this in two ways: A) We improve power by preparing carbon in the form of a contiguous, conductive foam structure. This is done with novel technology: a polymer powder is simply pressed into a compact and carbonized. B) We improve energy by modifying the carbon surface with groups which undergo redox reactions (i.e., they provide pseudocapacitance). One proprietary surface modification from our lab has been shown to increase carbon's energy storage by as much as 100% in aqueous electrolytes. The Phase I work consists of: a) Enhancing the power properties of our carbon foam by tailoring its pore size distribution. b) Determining the feasibility of mass-producing carbon foam in thin wafer form. c) Preparation and testing of an aqueous prototype. D) Testing a new surface modification concept designed to provide pseudocapacitance in organic electrolytes.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4437
Kirk M. Slenes, M.S.
BMDO 98-005
Title: High Energy Density Capacitor Development
Abstract: The development of high energy storage systems with reduced size and weight are important for tactical and strategic pulsed power applications such as: electric armor, electric guns, high power microwave sources and ballistic missile applications. The dielectric energy storage density of pulsed power materials must be increased to provide feasibility or improve performance of these systems. TPL has developed a dielectric polymer capable of an energy density of 7.5 J/cc. This performance represents a factor of four over that of state-of-the-art capacitor materials. Based on measured properties of TPL's polymer film in its current configuration it is expected that capacitors can be fabricated with energy densities in excess of 4.0 J/cc. TPL proposes a Phase I effort to demonstrate the performance of their recently developed dielectric film in a rolled capacitor configuration. TPL will work in collaboration with Aerovox Corp. to develop fabrication processes for capacitor construction utilizing TPL's film and will establish a full range of device performance characteristics. It is anticipated that this program will establish the high energy density capabilities of TPL's film in a capacitor and provide the groundwork for development of prototype devices in a number of pulsed power systems.

CENTRE CAPACITOR, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 237-0321
Dr. Wesley Hackenberger
BMDO 98-016
Title: Multilayer Capacitors Utilizing Large Dielectric Permittivity Polymers for High Energy Storage
Abstract: For this Phase I SBIR, high energy storage capacitors are proposed based on the breakthrough technology of large dielectric permittivity polymers. Based on the P(VDF-TrFE) systems, these polymers exhibit relaxor ferroelectric behavior when irradiated; that is, high dielectric permittivity (sr~l OO) over a broad diffused temperature region.With these high dielectric constant and low loss polymers, energy storage levels of greater than 25 Joules/cm3 are projected, nearly an order of a magnitude larger than existing polymer dielectrics. In this program, chemical engineering of P(VDF-TrFE) polymers, as well as processing and metallization methods to optimize key parameters relevant to pulse power operation will be investigated. Single layer polymer capacitors will be tested for energy storage capability including dielectric breakdown strength (DBS), discharge rate, dielectric loss under E-field, etc., to establish the potential of this new class of dielectrics for ultimate manufacturing of pulse power capacitors in Phase II.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4139
William Dorogy
AF 99-210
Title: Novel Class of Polymers for Energy Storage Capacitors
Abstract: Pulsed power systems need capacitors with energy densities inexcess of 10 kJ/kg (preferably 30 kJ/kg to keep the size of power conditioning systems manageable. Current dielectric materials are the major limiting factor inaccomplishing this goal. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a true polymeric dielectric material with extremely hgih deilectric constant, good dielectric strentgh and low loss, typical of high polymers. OUr approach is based on creating a dielectric which mimics the highly polarizable perovskite structure of titanatesi a true polymer. This propsal describes two classes of materials, and appropriate polymerization techniques to achieve this goal. In Phase I, we will synthesize monomers,and verify that they contain highly posarizable configuratesn via X-ray crystallography and dielectric measurements, and create a high molecurlar weight polymer with these monomers. In Phase II, we will scale-up the precesses, and teaming with Aerovox fabricate capacitors with energy density in excess of 10 kJ/kg, and energy storage above 2 kJ.

SIGMA TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
10960 North Stallard Place
Tucson, AZ 85737

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Ali Boufelfel
BMDO 99-005
Title: Ultra-High Energy Density Polymer Film Capacitors
Abstract: Recent developments in ferroelectric film surface modifications hold a greater promise for the development of lighweight ultra high energy density film capacitors. The proposed work will utilize a film structure modification method and several polymer film innovations that have been energy density. In the phase I program, we propose to design and fabricate high voltage, high current (<0.1ms discharge) capacitors, with an energy density of 10-15J/cc, based on existing and proven capacitor technology. The new capacitor design will based on Sigma’s new hybrid treated polymer film technology that allows the production of polymer films that have improved self healing characteristics, higher breakdown strength, lower dielectric absorption and superior thermal and mechanical properties which result in higher current carrying ability. In the Phase I program 25.0F/5300V parts with energy densities of 10-15J/cc will be produced and tested. In the Phase II program, specific DoD applications will be addressed and capacitors will be produced and delivered for field testing.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, N.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87109

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4437
Kirk M. Slenes, M.S.
BMDO 99-014
Title: Novel Composite Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitors
Abstract: The next generation of military energy storage capacitors will necessitate improvements in materials efficiency, energy density, and temperature reliability over existing devices. Similar performance issues are driving the consumer electronics market towards the development of high capacitance, low voltage, and small volume energy storage devices. These two market needs can be met by a single product which addresses the mutual concerns for high temperature stability and improved dielectric performance. TPL proposed to develop a high density material having a three-fold increase in energy storage density with improved thermal stability. A composite system is proposed consisting of two novel materials developed at TPL, polyimide copolymers with increased energy density and mechanical strength, and surface functionalized, nano-sized X7R barium titanate. Capacitor grade film of the composite materials will be fabricated and evaluated with regard to critical electrical performance parameters. TPL has extensive experience in dielectric polymers and hydrothermal titanate ceramics, including the development of doping methods to produce 50 nm size ceramic powders with flattened frequency and temperature response. Expertise in these two areas, in conjunction with industrial partners, will be used to develop dual-use materials to satisfy the mutual needs of military and consumer products.

OZ ELECTRO-OPTICS, INC.
2043 De Mayo Rd.
Del Mar, CA 92014

Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 481-0218
Oved Zucker
DTRA 99-001
Title: High Energy Density Capacitors
Abstract: We propose a method to enhance the energy density of capacitors and other dielectrics by the creation of intermediate layers between the electrodes and the energy storing dielectric proper. The solution is applicable to applications where the charge and discharge time are defined. Once defined, a tailored layer is fashioned which will drastically reduce the field enhancements at imperfections for the specified charge an discharge times. Since most circuit installed capacitors operate in a fixed temporal region defined by the circuit designer, such a solution is applicable to most applications of capacitors. They do not apply to capacitors used experimentally where the operating regime changes from use to use. The successful application of this technology may increase energy storage by as much as an order of magnitude with application extending from major facilities and utility power factor corrects on application to MOS gates of semiconductors.