*** Note: See Miscellaneous for "Soot Removal from Diesel Exhaust Engine Using Microwaves"

3292 East Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
(520) 573-6300
Dragan Popovich
NAVY 99-114
Title: Ultra-Fast, Affordable, Portable Tool for Concrete/Steel Cutting in Rescue/Salvage Operations
Abstract: The proposed solution to ultra-fast concrete and steel cutting is to simultaneously increase hardness and toughness of a cutting tool. Novel cellular cermet cutting tool inserts offer an order of magnitude increase in cutting rates compared to traditional carbide or ceramic cutting tool inserts. The actual form of a cellular insert will be in form of a coating (between 0.5mm and 1mm thick) on a cutting face of a solid carbide insert. The cellular coating provides the fracture toughness, abrasion resistance, and resistance to chipping, while the solid carbide body underneath provides high flexural and compressive strength. This approach has already been demonstrated in ACR's work on oil well drill inserts with Smith International of Houston, TX, a leading manufacturer of oil exploration equipment. This collaboration has led to the development of drill inserts that allow well drilling in rock formations that were previously considered to be impossible to drill, such as granite. Both laboratory and field testing of novel cellular cermet drill bit inserts have demonstrated that a new paradigm in abrasive cutting is achievable through careful engineering of the microstructure of a cutting tool. More importantly, novel cellular cutting inserts can be effectively and inexpensively integrated into traditional portable devices, such as circular or chain saws.

350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451

(781) 684-4283
Robert L. Cardenas
NAVY 99-121
Title: Nonclogging Sewage Discharge Pump
Abstract: The comminutors and transfer pumps used to process and discharge sewage from Navy vessels are the two primary components requiring the most service/maintenance. When the comminutors fail, oversized solids enter into the Collection, Holding and Transfer (CHT) system used to process shipboard soil and waste drain discharge. These large solids can subsequently clog the sewage discharge pump (SDP), disrupting system functionality and forcing sewage to be discharged into restricted waterways which is in direct violation with Secretary of Defense promulgated regulations. To correct this situation a new or modified pump must be engineered that will eliminate the need for the communitor. This new pump must be capable of either passing the largest solids that can flow through system piping or reducing the size of incoming solids using integral chopping mechanisms. In Phase I, system requirements will be established and a design for an advanced SDP will be developed. The proposed principles of operation for this new SDP will be verified through proof of feasibility testing using modified pumps tested on simulated waste streams. The Phase I results will provide the baseline foundation for developing prototype SDPs that can be tested on actual shipboard waste in a follow-on Phase II program.

4921 E. Pineledge Dr.
Clarence, NY 14031
(716) 759-8211
Vladimir Hlavacek
NAVY 99-114
Title: Ultra-fast Portable Metallic/Concrete Plate Cutting
Abstract: New methods of very fast cutting of steel plates will be proposed. Following processes will be considered: 1) Use of ultrafine metallic powders to increase the speed of propagation of the cutting flame. 2) Use of new type of solid phase oxidizers to boost the exothermic reaction. 3) Use of additives, which convert the liquid iron pool into gas. 4) Use of metallic jet to increase the cutting speed. For cutting of concrete a novel method is proposed which converts concrete into gaseous products. Both batch and continuous portable equipment will be considered.

521 Lehigh Ave
Union, NJ 07083

(908) 687-7033
E. Allan Blair
NAVY 99-040
Title: Expedient Foam Technologies for Marine Corps Operations
Abstract: The objective of this project is to demonstrate the capability and affordability of rigid polyurethane foams (RPF) as an expedient construction material to improve operational capability of Marine Corps units conducting expeditionary operations. The function of this material is to fill gaps or crossings, serve as a barrier or channeling material, and stabilize beaches and marshes. It will serve the function of concrete or asphalt, but it requires less material, and is easier to mix and apply. In Phase I, we propose to develop the technical specifications for the material, develop a RPF meeting those specifications, and develop a prototype machine for dispensing and mixing the ingredients to make the RPF. With this machine, we will demonstrate our ability to make the RPF meeting the specifications of the project and will prepare a quantity of product RPF for evaluation by the client agency. In Phase II, we will modify the specifications of the RPF if necessary, based on the client agency's evaluation of the product from Phase I, develop a full scale machine for field application of large amounts of the RPF that we developed in Phase I, and will carry out a field demonstration of the apparatus and material.

P.O. Box 4182
Butte, MT 59702

(406) 494-5555
John C. Tierney
BMDO 96-013
Title: Liquid Melt Focused Beam Spray Process
Abstract: The innovation presented in this proposal involves the use of a liquid melt thermal spray process for cost effective rapid prototyping of near-net shape tooling for the lay up of advanced composite materials. The process uses a focused beam of charged liquid droplets to form tooling directly from three-dimensional computer generated drawings eliminating traditional steps associated with fabrication of a lay up mold. This process is called "liquid melt focused beam" (LMFB) thermal spray. The liquid droplets will be focused using novel methods to enable the liquid plume width to be controlled for fabricating a part from the "ground" up. The innovation is especially profound since it has potential for fabrication of both small and large scale tools. The process has commercial applications and the Boeing Defense and Space Group is interested in Phase II development of the process for large scale components. A separate area of importance to the US Air Force is that once the process has been demonstrated for fabrication of tooling, it may also be utilized for the direct fabrication of composite sandwiched materials. The innovative technology described in this proposal meets the subtopic need for tooling techniques for near-net shape production of advanced composites.

19365 Business Center Drive, Suite 8&9
Northridge, CA 91324

(818) 727-9786
Cheng-Jye Chu
DARPA 95-005
Title: High Density Boron Carbide Armor Tiles by Microwave Processing
Abstract: Microwave sintering of ceramics has many advantages compared to the conventional process, for example, reduction in manufacturing costs and processing times, improving product uniformity, microstructures, properties, and yield. By using a novel process with microwave to press the B4C preform that is effectively heated by microwave, fully dense B4C can be achieved at very short process time. A simple cold pressing equipment can be used to achieve this process, capital cost of the production can be dramatically reduced. The production time will also be reduced by using microwave heating. The proposed idea can be achieved by four approaches, (1) uniaxial pressing, (2) pseudoisostatic pressing, and (3) hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Anticipated Benefits: If the proposed research is successful, the microwave pressure sintering process will provide a low cost technology to make dense boron carbide ceramics. The microwave pressure sintering can also be applied on many applications beside boron carbide. The applications areas include refractory ceramics, ceramic cermets, composites, et al.. In addition, many new material systems that were not available or hard to achieve by conventional techniques can be designed and fabricated by this technique.

*** Note in the following the reference to SARA and acoustic beam weapon, and acoustic levels of >10’ s of kilowatts

15262 Pipeline Ln.
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
(714) 373-5509
Jay B. Cleckler
AF 98-103
Title: Neutralization of Airborne Chemical by Sonic Beam Flocculation
Abstract: The international proliferation of chemical weapons of mass destruction agents has become a very serious threat to national security.. A critical need exists to neutralize airborne chemical agents, in the event of their deliberate, collateral or accidental release. Sonic flocculation is a proven technique that rapidly and efficiently settles airborne droplets, dust and smoke. Intense high frequency sonic fields induce the rapid agglomeration of suspended particulates. The resulting heavier particles rapidly settle from the air to the ground. During Phase I, SARA will perform critical experiments to quantify the sonic frequency and intensity levels required to rapidly (under 30 sec) neutralize airborne fogs and dusts. Simulant materials will be chosen to provide particle sizes and densities comparable to actual specified chemical or biological warfare agents. To achieve sonic flocculation of large air volumes, high energy sources are required (>10's of Kilowatts). SARA's High energy acoustic beam weapon technology can significantly exceed these acoustic powers. Our Phase II experiments will be used to design the Phase II test device for critical outdoor (field demonstations). In addition to military application, sonic flocculation can be applied to anti-terrorist missions as well as control of accidental (industrial) releases of hazardous materials.

3921 Academny Parkway N, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
(505) 342-4453
Andrew W. Cain
NAVY 98-095
Title: Manufacturing Techniques for Red Phosphorus Powder
Abstract: Reducing the particle size of red phosphorus may increase its fire retardancy by an order of magnitude. The Navy requires five-micron red phosphorus. Current European production yields thirty-micron phosphorus; there is no commercial production in America. Once produced, further size reduction may cause fires or explosions due to phosphorus sensitivity. TPL will apply four established industrial processes to manufacturing red phosphorus, all having innovative potential to directly produce five-micron particles, eliminating the hazardous step of comminution. The processes include quenching, atomizing, fluidizing, and extruding. TPL will combine its experience with energetic materials and nano-sized particle production to choose the best design for further development. Design packages including PFDs, P&IDs, and SOPs will be generated for each of the four processes. Then a hazard analysis, feasibility study, and cost analysis will be performed. process with the least inherent hazards and most promise will be chosen for further development. TPL is a leading company in applying energetic materials and producing nano-sized material, offering TPL more potential than other companies for successful production of five-micron red phosphorus. TPL has demilitarized 1700 tons of pyrotechnics, selling recovered material commercially. TPL's nano-sized barium titanate is available from Aldrich, Alfa Aesar, and Cerac Specialty Powders.

916 Pleasant St, Unit 12
Norwood, MA 02062

(781) 769-6064
Dr. Srinivasan Sarangapan
ARMY 98-164
Title: Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures
Abstract: Painted coatings are not perfect and their integrity is constantly challenged. During everyday use, scratches or scribes are often introduced into a coating. Where this occurs, the underlying metal is exposed directly to the environment and this favors accelerated corrosion. Thus, there is a need for so-called smart coatings that can spontaneously heal themselves wherever they are damaged. Incorporation of microcapsules loaded with a multifunctional corrosion inhibitor into a coating formulation offers this possibility. Wherever such a coating is scratched or scribed, the microcapsules are designed to rupture and release their corrosion inhibitor contents to cover the damaged area thereby providing corrosion protection to this area. The overall goal of the proposed program is to develop an effective corrosion inhibiting coating system for outdoor use on steel enclosed appliances and equipment. The coating system will be based upon a primer that contains a microencapsulated corrosion- inhibiting liquid formulation. Variables associated with microcapsule parameters and coating parameters will be investigated. Salt spray and electrochemical characterization of coatings will be conducted to assess the efficacy of the self-healing coatings. BENEFITS: The US Army estimates that the cost for painting/depainting operations is $2 billion per year. In addition, Navy and Air Force coating requirements for steel and aluminum are significant dollar volume. In the consumer area, automobile and marine applications are significant. Numerous hobby-related applications, which are less price-sensitive, exist.

8301 Washington Street, N.E., Suite 1
Albuquerque, NM 87113

(505) 821-3620
Paul Ekegren
DARPA 98-010
Title: Data Driven Rapid Prototyping and Fabrication of Electronic Components
Abstract: The proposal addresses the need to advance the state-of-the-art in direct-write technology. In an effort to reduce feature size, the trend in the thick and thin-film industries has been toward increased manufacturing and write speed, decreased feature size and increased versatility of powder based features. The dry powder deposition of fine powders (1-10 micron) is currently a weak link in that there is not an adequate way to feed these powders accurately and reliably to existing approaches to direct-write can be investigated and accelerated. Under this proposal, a powder gun will be developed that is capable of accurately and reliably feeding fine powders in a narrow beam with high density. This prototype powder gun will be used to demonstrate a new approach to direct-write meso-scale electronics involving the writing of small feature sizes of adhesive followed by application of a fine powder by the powder gun. This approach promises higher write speeds with smaller features, less powder waste and increased versatility than current direct-write technologies. Phase II will focus on a functional direct-write machine using the developed technology and commercialization through strategic partners.

P.O. Box 6042
Lawrenceville, NJ 08648
(609) 279-0072
Paul Kydd
DARPA 98-010
Title: Materials for Printing Electronic Components
Abstract: The objective of this Phase I program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of functional materials that can be applied by a simple print-and-heat process at temperatures below 400 C to create electronic components on a variety of substrates. The technology to be demonstrated is an extension of the existing PARMOD process from metallic conductors to resistors, capacitors and inductors based on oxide phases. A successful result in Phase I will permit demonstration of producing complete electronic circuits by a maskless, computer-driven tool in Phase II. Both conductors and functional components will be applied in a multilayer structure to create a selected circuit of military interest on low-cost polymer-based substrates.

155 River Street
Andover, MA 01810
(978) 470-1620
Joseph C. Runkle
NAVY 98-141
Title: Ultra-Light Structural Steel From Metal Foams
Abstract: The objective of this proposed effort is to develop cost-effective fabrication technology for ultra-light steel structures using metal foam technology. Ultra-light metals, materials with densities less than 50 % that of bulk alloys offer significant structural advantages in terms of compressive strength- and stiffness-to-weight ratios for both military and commercial structures. Such materials have also been found to offer excellent crash protection, flame retardation, vibration damping and blast protection. UltraClad Corporation intends to build upon steel metal foam technology developed at Fraunhofer Institute which have been shown to offer promise in meeting program objectives. In Phase I concepts for low cost fabrication/manufacturing like Hot isostatic pressing (HIP), P/M techniques, and foaming additions such as strontium carbonate and carbon will be evaluated as candidate technologies. In Phase II a material mechanical and physical property data base sufficient for engineering design studies will be developed, and methods identified in Phase I for joining ultra-light steel materials and fabricating engineering structures will be demonstrated.

33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
(781) 272-3250
Dr. Suri A. Sastri
NAVY 98-148
Title: High performance hard carbon coatings for naval aircraft components
Abstract: EPA and OSHA regulations regarding the toxicity of the hazardous waste disposal products from surface treatments such as black oxide have spurred the quest for alternate coating process which meet or exceed their performance requirements. The challenge posed by this solicitation is to develop a low cost environment-friendly alternate finishing operation. The use of high performance carbon coatings that are hard, chemically inert and possess a low coefficient of friction has been proposed as the alternative. An innovative and economical process to produce this coating is also proposed. The coating is gray black in color and has intrinsic lubricity and exceptional wear and corrosion resistance properties and is galvanically neutral. While the coated surface is an excellent retainer of oil films, the surface will continue to perform very reliably even without the application of oil films. The low process temperature assures that the metallurgical properties and dimensional tolerances of the base material are retained. There are no effluents from the process and it is 100% environmentally clean. The process is simple and is expected to be highly scalable and economical.