*** See microwave section for more millimeter wavelength microwave imaging systems for "through the wall" surveillance.

New items (01-14-2001) are in BLUE


The next item is one of the new Whale Killers the Navy is developing


97 Elm Street

Cohasset, MA 02025 Phone:


Topic#: (781) 383-2002

John L. Butler

NAVY 00-072 Title: Multistatic Acoustic Source for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) Abstract: A low frequency underwater acoustic source for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) will be developed. The transducer will operate in the 300 Hz to 500 Hz spectrum with an acoustic source level of at least 205 dB /1uPa @ 1m. The proposed innovative transducer design will be based on the X-spring design (U. S. Patent 4,845,688 "Electromechanical Transduction Apparatus,"). The new X-spring transducer element configuration proposed uses a large 33 mode ring which drives two concave cone shaped shells which, in turn, amplify the motion translated to two symmetrical pistons. The design allows an increase in radiating area and a magnified motion resulting in a larger volume velocity than could be achieved from a ring alone. Also, the radiation load is magnified yielding a low Q and high mechanical efficiency even at low frequencies. Although a single transducer should be capable of achieving the desired acoustic source level, we present a directional capability scheme where an improved directivity index can be achieved reducing the power needed for the desired level. A UUV transducer for multi-static sonar applications will be developed. The ring driven X-spring approach should provide a scalable approach applicable to current and future underwater acoustic systems. The technology should provide improvement for low frequency sonar systems, and for oceanographic and possibly tomography applications.



7740 Kenamar Ct.

San Diego, CA 92121 Phone:


Topic#: (858) 566-9200

Robert Mathews

NAVY 00-077 Title: Integration of Advanced Magnetic Sensors into Underwater Vehicles to Provide High-Quality Spatiotemporal Magnetic Data Abstract: Ultrasensitive magnetometers have demonstrated their responsiveness to Navy needs ranging from basic science (ocean floor geomagnetic surveys) to military operations (detection, classification and localization of buried mines). Taking advantage of their sensitivity requires means to suppress noise caused by sensor motion in the earth's magnetic field. An additional problem with using magnetometers on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is magnetic interference generated by the AUV itself. A unique new instrument, the Room Temperature Three Sensor Gradiometer (RTG), developed by IBM, Quantum Magnetics and the Naval Coastal Systems Station, lends itself especially well to solving the AUV interference problem. It offers unprecedented potential for magnetic measurements of high sensitivity from AUV platforms for both research and military operations. In Phase I, we propose to characterize the magnetic interference field of low-cost, plastic-body AUV's and to use the information to design a generalized RTG optimized for AUV operation. In Phase II, we will fabricate, integrate and demonstrate the RTG aboard an AUV. Room Temperature Three Sensor Gradiometers (RTGs) integrated into small, inexpensive AUVs offer a new capability in sea floor geological research and military operations such as shallow-water mine reconnaissance. The generalization of RTG technology proposed here allows implementation in new application areas such as magnetic detection of corrosion and biomagnetometry.


2 Research Place, Suite 202

Rockville, MD 20850 Phone:


Topic#: (301) 590-3155

Donald R. Myers

NAVY 00-078 Title: Quadruped Robotic Manipulator as Multipurpose Positioning System Abstract: This proposal describes an approach to building a Quadruped Robotic Vehicle (QRV) for use as a heavy-lift, stable, reconfigurable, omnidirectional, naval multipurpose mobility platform. The QRV will be able to maneuver both below-deck and on-deck in a way that could never be achieved with a wheeled vehicle. For use below-deck, the QRV could move down narrow passageways and through elevator doors easier than existing forklift vehicles. The QRV can fold to a low profile for easy storage. On-deck, the QRV could step over tie-down chains, over or around aircraft landing gear, and maneuver its payload in tight spaces near aircraft pylons. In addition, the QRV provides a mulit-DOF motion base for manipulators, end-effectors, and tools to assist in the loading and off-loading of payloads. The QRV we propose exploits four legs, each configured as a Stewart Platform. In previous work, we simulated the dynamics of such a vehicle. In this work, specific shipboard applications will be identified and the simulation will be enhanced to demonstrate the QRV's capability of performing each application. The most immediate application of the work proposed is an omnidirectional, multipurpose mobility platform for material handling and for logistics support. The QRV would be ideal as a mobility base for a robot in any application where the ability to move in tightly constrained areas is important.


3115 W. 6th Street, Suite I

Lawrence, KS 66049 Phone:


Topic#: (785) 841-9823

Kyle Wetzel

NAVY 00-081 Title: Smart Materials-based Quiet Turning and Propulsion Mechanisms for Marine Vehicles Abstract: The need for quieting the propulsion system of naval vessels is identified Quiet turning capability and non-rotating propulsion systems are two concepts that can be employed to increase the stealthiness of ships, without the associated loss of propulsive performance. By using propellers running in variable-geometry shrouds, thrust vectoring can be achieved, in lieu of using a rudder or turning the shroud. It is also possible to create a non-rotating propulsion system that uses variable geometry to impart energy to a flow, providing propulsive power for the vessel. Both these proposed concepts utilize smart materials to effect the desired shape change. Aerotech proposes to develop two smart materials-based systems for enhancing the stealth performance of Navy ship propulsion systems: the first is a variable geometry shroud for thrust vectoring, and the second is a propulsion system that uses variable geometry to effect propulsion. The use of smart materials such as magnetostrictives and piezoelectrics offers unique advantages to designers and operators of engineering systems. Such systems can produce "solid-state" actuation, and are simple, compact, flexible, and reliable. These concepts also offer the advantages of reliable operation and increased blade life to commercial ship operators. Actuators developed for these applications can be inserted into actuation systems used in medical, aerospace, automotive, industrial motion, optics and other fields.



7655 E. Redfield Rd. #10

Scottsdale, AZ 85260 Phone:


Topic#: (480) 483-1997

Walker Butler

NAVY 00-090 Title: Innovative Air and Surface Strike Weapons Technology Abstract: Sensor Technologies & Systems' personnel have over 35 years experience designing, building and testing active, semi-active and passive RF seekers for air-to-air and air-to-surface missile systems. STS has recently been working at millimeter wave frequencies for low cost ($500-2000) commercial sensor applications. STS proposes to investigate the application of this commercial technology for a very low cost air-ground seeker. This seeker would feature beam steering in aximuth for search and high range resolution for clutter rejection and target identification. STS has been engaged in the design, fabrication, and test of millimeter wave radar sensors for several years. STS was initially contracted under the U.S. Department of Transportation's Integrated Vehicle Highway System program to evaluate the effectiveness of forward-looking radars for collision warning and cruise control for future cars and trucks. This effort lasted from 1993 to 1998 and included the design, fabrication, and test of a 76.5 GHz FM-CW radar mounted on the front of a test vehicle. Since then STS has started development of a miniaturized 76.5 GHz radar for use in this application. This radar has many of the generic features which would qualify it for use as a missile seeker, such as a narrow azimuth beam (1.6 degrees), good range resolution (1.5 feet), a scanning antenna in azimuth (20 beam positions), and radar image processing for scene recognition. The radar transmits only a few milliwatts of power, yet it can easily detect vehicles over 200 meters away. While this range is not sufficient for a seeker, one kilometer should be, so the concept is worth considering. There is component development occurring in the 76-77 GHz band because of the automotive applications. STS Proposes to take advantage of this development to design and test an extremely low cost missile seeker.


The Millennium Centre, R.D. 1, Box 100B

Triadelphia, WV 26059 Phone:


Topic#: (304) 547-5800

Darren K. Rogers

NAVY 00-091 Title: Reducing the Cost of Naval Vessels through Use of Inexpensive, Lightweight Structural Foams Abstract: Within focus on Product Design and Material Technologies under MARITECH's Strategic Investment Plan, there is opportunity for development of novel materials and designs that will reduce systems costs and offer performance improvements. A technology, based on domestic materials and expertise, is being developed by Touchstone Research Laboratory that will support low-cost shipbuilding and market differentiation with international shipbuilders. It is a lightweight, fire-resistant, structural carbon foam produced from readily-available bituminous coal. Carbon foam advantages that support shipbuilding affordability include (1) finished component costs projected at less than $6 per pound, (2) widely available precursors from a robust, domestic supplier base, (3) parallel development for commodity industries to reduce manufacturing costs with increased volume, and (4) reduced maintenance/replacement costs in a marine environment. Initial concept testing has been supported under Navy Phase I and II SBIRs aimed at illustrating the multifunctionality of carbon foam. There are many naval applications for carbon foam, utilizing its structural properties and fire and corrosion resistance. In the proposed effort, Touchstone seeks to broaden exposure of carbon foam to include other vessels, such as submarines and smaller surface vessels which also offer applications for lightweight, inexpensive, and fire resistant structural materials. Ship, home and building ventilation ducts and fireproof walls for home, office and emergency shelters; fire and ballistic protection for law enforcement, fire fighting and military personnel



9775 Towne Centre Drive

San Diego, CA 92121 Phone:


Topic#: (256) 837-9100

T.G. Bo Henderson

AF 00-048 Title: Robust Microtip Emitter Arrays for Microelectronics Abstract: The technology to fabricate wide band semiconductor microtips and vacuum field effect transistors will be developed. More specifically, micro-vacuum-tube electronics utilizing CVD diamond microtip emitters (patent pending) as the cold cathode, a CVD diamond micro-patterned grid or self aligned gate, and a CVD diamond anode will be developed. Each device will be 3 microns square and will be fabricated in an array having 10 million devices in 1 cm^2. The very small vacuum tubes will have plate currents of 100 micro-amps at grid voltages of a few volts. Individual microtriodes could be connected together using modern semiconductor metalization methods to form extremely radiation tolerant high temperature processors. Or the microtriode array can be ganged together to form an extremely high power RF amplifier which has plate current of 1,000 amps/cm^2 and plate voltages in the kilovolt range. Grid voltages on the order of tens of volts will control the current emission and potentially produce megawatts of power from a 1 cm^2 device. During Phase I, CVD diamond microtip emitter arrays will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory in a diode configuration. The Phase II program will design, fabricate, test, and deliver CVD diamond microtriodes.


2620 Trade Center Avenue

Longmont, CO 80503 Phone:


Topic#: (303) 702-1672

Dmitri Routkevitch

AF 00-048 Title: Arrays of Aligned WBGS Nanotips for Rugged Field Emission Sources Abstract: Affordable and reliable technology is needed for fabrication of micro- and nanotip field emitters from wide band gap semiconductors (WBGS), which could enable new high current electron sources for severe operating conditions, such as high temperature and harsh electromagnetic radiation. Although several approaches for making field emitter arrays were demonstrated up to date, their emission threshold, sustainable current density, and survivability are not sufficient for many military and commercial applications. The proposed effort seeks to develop novel arrays of aligned WBGS nanoemitters, prepared in self-organized nanoporous ceramic substrate. The arrays will be integrated into field emission cathodes for vacuum field effect transistors and other vacuum microelectronic devices, operating in harsh environments. The approach is compatible with conventional microfabrication, economical and scaleable to large areas. The Phase I will demonstrate the proof-of-concept by fabricating and evaluating a prototype of a vacuum field emission microdiode with integrated array of WBGS nanoemitters. Phase II will design, fabricate and demonstrate the operation of vacuum field effect transistors in harsh conditions, provide packaged prototypes to the Air Force and to industrial partners for evaluation, and initiate commercialization effort.



6059 Bristol Parkway

Culver City, CA 90230 Phone:


Topic#: (310) 216-4049

Bruno Pouet

AF 00-144 Title: Laser-based ultrasonic detection of defects under thermal barrier coatings Abstract: This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will determine the feasibility of laser-based ultrasonic inspection for the detection of defects under porous coatings, specifically thermal barrier coatings. Laser ultrasound is a developing field and can be used for remote measurements of parts in hostile environments where traditional transducer-based ultrasound techniques cannot be used. A laser-based ultrasonic system is composed of a generation laser and a laser receiver. The generation laser is a pulsed laser. The absorption of a short laser pulse causes local heating of the sample, generating an ultrasonic stress wave. This wave is detected where it reaches the surface by a laser interferometer. One promising interferometric receiver uses two-wave mixing in a photorefractive material to coherently combine a plane-wave reference beam and a probe beam which has been distorted while interrogating the rough test surface. In this program we will investigate a number of inspection geometries for high-sensitivity detection and localization of defects cracks. We will seek to optimize the sensitivity of our laser ultrasonic technique by taking advantage of modern appropriate signal processing techniques.


1500 Sheridan Road, Unit 8A

Wilmette, IL 60091 Phone:


Topic#: (847) 491-7251

Hooman Mohseni

AF 00-156 Title: Materials for Superlattice Infrared Detectors Abstract: Recently, novel electronic and optoelectronic devices such as hundred gigahertz logic circuits, room temperature infrared lasers, and detectors have been demonstrated from III-V based mixed anion heterostructures. The importance of the interfaces quality and crystal perfection in this material system has been proven to be the key issue by many groups. The objective of this project is to develop epitaxial growth techniques that will significantly increase the interface smoothness and abruptness, as well as the material crystal quality. The proposed growth techniques and source material switching sequences will reduce some of the fundamental growth problems such as cross incorporation, cation and anion segregation, and atomic exchange. These techniques are expected to result in a root mean square (rms) surface roughness below 1/2 monolayer over large areas, abrupt interfaces, and high crystal quality reproducibly.


KERNCO, INC. 28 Harbor Street Danvers, MA 01923

Phone: PI: Topic#: (978) 777-1956 Martin Levine AF 00-237

Title: Ultraminiature Laser-Based Atomic Clocks (ULAC)

Abstract: As navigation accuracy, code encryption and data transmission rate requirements become more critical, it is a requirement that a suitable timing device be at the heart of the system. A Ultraminiature Laser-Based Atomic Clock (ULAC) will be a necessity to realize the stringent size, weight, and system performance requirements. While many solutions may exist, two technologies that appear to be the most viable for the ULAC application are: Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) and conventional Intensity Optical Pumping (IOP). It is inappropriate at this time to attempt to directly compare the relative merits of the various technologies as applied to a ULAC concept since existing data has been accumulated under widely varying conditions and incompatible environments. The IOP approach to the ULAC has previously been developed in prototype units with limited success. This SBIR Phase I program will provide further advances in the art of ultraminiature atomic clocks by: direct comparison of CPT and IOP technologies, selection of the optimum candidate, and fabrication of a demonstration unit. The natural follow-on to this effort would be a Phase II SBIR to demonstrate a prototype unit capable of interfacing with multiple application platforms which would allow simultaneous pursuit of DoD and Commercial applications.



100 Jersey Ave., Bldg D

New Brunswick, NJ 08901 Phone:


Topic#: (732) 565-9500

Maurice Weiner

DARPA 00-025 Title: Development of an Advanced High Yield Cost Effective SiC Process Technology for Manufacturing a New Class of SiC Power Devices Abstract: We propose to develop an innovative cost-effective SiC process technology that would make it possible for the first time to fabricate and commercialize a whole now class of SiC power switches covering voltages from 1,000V to 10,000V. The proposed innovative process technology, if developed successfully, would make it possible to (i) reduce the high power dissipation of SiC devices to less than 200 W/sq.cm, (ii) drastically improve SiC power device reliability when operating at high temperatures, and (iii) reduce the costs of SiC power devices as a result of the greatly improved process and device yield. In Phase I, we plan to (i) perform fundamental experiments and computer simulations to show the feasibility of the innovative technology for applications to high power devices, (ii) demonstrate experimentally the proposed innovative technology through the fabrication of a novel SiC power switch, and (iii) deliver two novel SiC power switches capable of 10 Amp-1,000V with low power dissipation by utilizing theinnovative SiC process technology. In Phase II, we will greatly improve the process technology for the commercialization development in Phase III.





(216) 229-4636
AF 98-239
Abstract: We propose high-performance heat sinks based on MEMS technology for cooling of advanced electronics. Our approach combines innovative designs, new microfabrication techniques, and high conductance materials resulting in extremely low thermal resistance and high heat load capacities in a compact and cost effective design, By using MEMS batch fabrication, the heat sinks can be made inexpensively, especially compared with complex forced liquid convention cooling systems made by conventional means. Furthermore, MEMS-based heat sinks will be smaller, lighter, and more amenable to incorporation into dense and space limited electronics systems than conventional heat sink

610 William Pitt Way
Pittsburgh, PA 15238

(412) 826-3191
Richard Nathenson
DARPA 95-005
Title: Man Portable Supersonic Air Jet System
Abstract: Reclaiming mine-infested areas so that they are safe for civilian use (demining) is a subject of considerable interest today. The State Department estimates that approximately 85 million mines emplaced worldwide cause 150 casualities a week. Extensive mined areas exist in Asia, Africa, Europe, and numerous other locations. Current state-of-the-art demining techniques vary in both approach and equipment; however, they generally involve hand tools and mine detectors. All techniques currently share two traits: they are manpower intensive and result in considerable risk to the personnel involved. Improvements in demining are sought which will result in reduced cost and acceptable timelines while achieving near perfect removal/neutralization and operator safety. Concept Engineering Group, Inc. (CEG) has been developing for the utility industry over the last several years a new digging method that uses supersonic air jets to provide a non-contacting, inherently safe form of excavation. This safe excavation technology allows precise and controlled digging and is ideally suited to uncovering a buried mine. Supersonic air jets are extremely effective at penetrating and dislodging most types of soil, but are harmless to buried objects. Based on its work, CEG proposes to develop a man portable, supersonic air jet, backpack demining system. Anticipated Benefits: The man portable, supersonic air jet, backpack demining system will allow safer, more efficient demining operations. However, since supersonic air jets do not harm nonporous objects, such portable units could be used anywhere it is necessary to uncover objects or dig holes safely. This includes archaelogical, agricultural, forestry, landscaping, utility, and domestic homeowner uses.

One South Linden St.
Duquesne, PA 15110

(412) 469-3150
Warren Gardner
DARPA 96-056
Title: An Interactive System for 3-D Modeling from Videotape
Abstract: K2T, Inc. proposes to design and demonstrate an interactive system capable of reconstructing 3-D models from ordinary video image sequences. Although many people are currently working in the field of shape from motion, no one has yet developed a commercially viable system for reconstructing 3-D models from videotape. The objective of this Phase I research is to design such a system. The system we propose is based on recent advances in image understanding theories, in particular the factorization method and related modeling by videotaping work being done at Carnegie Mellon University. The result of this Phase I effort will be a complete object oriented design specifying tasks such as feature extraction and tracking, shape motion reconstruction, 3-D modeling, representation conversion, and attribute recovery. A small portion of this system will also be implemented and used to evaluate the feasibility of the approach. The feasibility study and the system design will provide a foundation for Phase II development.

2811 Pasatiempo Glen
Escondido, CA 92025

(619) 746-9594
Ronald Winder
DARPA 95-007
Title: MEMS Integration for a Range of Tire Pressure Devices
Abstract: This project develops an innovative miniature tire pressure monitoring device based upon Microelectromechanical systems(MEMS) technology. The device achieves a high level of integration between microelectronics and MEMS technologies. The device and integration techniques developed in this project apply to other pressure measuring applications as well. The phase I work will define the ranges of applications for each device type from a family of devices of the same basic design. It will construct evaluation prototypes of proof-of-concept design for the device. The project's results will be obtained from representative tests on the assembled prototypes. Subsequent phases will complete the design, build pre-production units to evaluate the manufacturability, and test. Limited pre-production quantities will be produced of demonstrations to potential full production partners (who may be users and/or producers). Anticipated Military Benefits/Potential Commercial Applications of the Research or Development: The post SBIR potential is tremendous. The tire pressure measurement problem has had many trial solutions which have not succeeded. However, because of a different approach, the potential for this innovation will be many million untis (probably 100's of million units) per year.

2451A Impala Drive
Carlsbad, CA 92008

(619) 930-2220
Edward Miles
DARPA 96-011
Title: Secure Optical Communications with Quantum Random Digital Noise (QRDN) - PR95-015
Abstract: Conventional algorithmic encryption for securing communications in optical WDM netwroks is not readily scalable to high data rates and is vulnerable to off-line cryptanalysis because the algorithm generates a pseudo-random key stream. We propose instead a new concept that avoids these limitations: it is a quantum random digital noise (QRDN) generator capable of generating the identical random bit stream at different geographical locations. In Phase I of this effort, we will design and demonstrate the generation of identical random key streams with two QRDN generators located 100m apart. The generators will consist of matched unbalanced Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometers in open loop operation. As part of Phase I, a concept of operations (CONOPS) will be developed to establish the range of applicability in various optical networks under consideration by the Defense and Telco communities; and a vulnerability analysis will be carried out for various types of attack.

P.O. Box 6637
Annapolis, MD 21401

(704) 687-1658
Walter R. Peck
AF 98-001
Title: Study of the Spinal Preloading Piston for the CKU-5/A Rocket Catapult
Abstract: Small, light weight, female pilots have been introduced into the AF and Navy pilot population in recent years. The increased spinal loading of light weight ejectees during the catapult stroke, with its attendant increased probability of spinal injusy, that occurs in an ejection is well known. It has also been shown that any upward acceleration of the aircraft during an ejection can appreciably increased the spinal loading with a drastic increase in the probability of spinal injury. Recent studies have shown that a separate short stroke piston that provides preloading of the spine can result in a much reduced spinal loading with some increase in the catapult separation velocity. This proposal is for an eight month study of the possible application of such a spinal preloading piston to the CKU-5/A rocket catapult used in the ACES-II open ejection seat escape system. This study is believed to be critical importance to all AF pilots, and especially to the light weight female pilots, who will be ejecting with the ACES-II ejection seat for many more years into the future.

6131 W. 80th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46268

(317) 850-1278
Krishna M. Choudhary, PhD
AF 98-022
Title: Thin Ceria-Based Electrolytes and Composite Sealants for Electrochemical Oxygen Generators
Abstract: There is a great need for pure oxygen generators for chemical and biological defense. Crystals & Ceramic Technology, Inc., proposes to investigate electromechanical generators with thin (dense) ceria-based electrolytes. The thin ceria-based electrolytes will be deposited on palladium-conductive manganite electrodes supported on porous alumina tubes by organometallic chemical vapor deposition. Furthermore, gold/conductive perovskite-type oxide composite sealants will be used for device fabrication. The electrode, porous support tube, solid electrolytes and sealants have been selected by proper material selection so that the thermal stresses in the device structure are reduced. The electro-chemical oxygen generator is expected to have an operating temperature in the 500-600 deg. C range. Performance of the electrochemical oxygen generators will be characterized by measurements of oxygen flux and determination of the purity of oxygen. The devices will be packaged for use as breathing equipment, and for application to generate pure oxygen from air in sealed enclosures.

101 Spear Street, #203
San Francisco, CA 94105

(415) 227-4900
Alan Gevins
AF 98-023
Title: WALKSCAN: A Wearable System for Operator State Monitoring
Abstract: Operations of complex systems can become inefficient because of mental overload, fatigue, boredom and lapses in situational awareness, drugs, illness, and other factors; a practical means of monitoring operator state is thus important for many Air Force missions. In the laboratory, physiological measures such as brain waves, eye blinks and movements, cardiac activity, respiration, and skin conductance, have been frequently demonstrated to provide information about operator state. Unfortunately, current technology is not adequate to support routine acquisition and timely analysis of physiological measures in naturalistic environments. To service this need, our R&D program has focused on developing the component technologies required for non-invasively monitoring the mental state of human operators. These include rugged and portable recording electronics, quick application electrodes and headsets, and EEG signal processing algorithms and analysis software for extracting physiological signals from artifact contaminated data and using them to characterize changes in mental activity. We propose to integrate these technologies to developd WALKSCAN, a self-contained ambulatory recorder/signal processing system, that will use physiological data to provide continuous estimates of operator state in real-world environments. In Phase I we will design WALKSCAN and implement a limited-functionality laboratory prototype. In Phase II it will be fully implemented and field-tested.

350Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154

(781) 684-4368
Peter A. Warren, Ph.D
AF 98-056
Title: Super Precision Integral Folding Hinge Structure
Abstract: Future, large aperture observation spacecraft will require large mirrors and structures to be deployed with optical precision. Current technologies require complex drive, joint and latch mechanisms that have intricate contact mechanics that make the structures less accurate and difficult to analyze. Operational experience and laboratory testing have shown the mechanisms cause sudden changes in shape that make deployed optics inaccurate and difficult to control.The proposed innovation is a continuously braided structure in which the folding joints that allow for stowing and deployment are integral to the structure. By utilizing unique braiding techniques to form locking joints from the same composite fibers that comprise the truss tubes, the truss deploys to form a rigid structure with no moving parts. Since ther are only flexing parts, the structure has no contact interfaces that can produce nonlinear dynamics. Since the structure is braided from continuous fibers, electrical and optical conductors can be bonded within the fibers; eliminating the nonlinear contribution of traditional cable bundles.the monolithic structure will have nanometer deployment repeatability and stability. The proposed innovative structural concept will enable the deployment of large aperture optical instruments and structures at a greatly reduced cost; power and launch mass.

4909 Nautilus Court North
Boulder, CO 80301

(303) 530-1925
Scott Christiansen
AF 98-056
Title: Part-Per-Million Latching Actuator
Abstract: This will develop an alternative technology for precision actuation and latching. A linear actuator based on paraffin expansion will be coupled with an innovative latching mechanism that allows the actuator to hold position when power is turned off. The paraffin actuator is a simple, reliable device with abundant flight heritage. It has potential for ectremely accurate positioning control. It will provide prescise linear actuation with ample stroke and high output force using low power in a compact, lightweight, reliable package that is easy to control. The latching mechanism is both unique and innovative. It is fundamentally different from other latching concepts because it does not rely on the mechanical contact of two mating surfaces. Instead it utilizes a low melting point alloy to freeze and hold the actuator output shaft in the desired position. This latching concept can be applied to other types of actuators and latches (both linear and rotary) including high bandwidth piezo actuators. The combined device will have the following capabilities:1. stroke: 1 millimeter 2. accuracy: <0.1 micron 3. mass: < 40 grams 4. overall length: < 6 cm (2.3 in) 5. zero power latching 6. output force: 150 N (35 lbf) 7. actuation rate: 10 microns/sec A proof of concept prototype will be designed, manufacturing and functionally tested in Phase I. In Phase II the concept will be refined, thoroughly tested and integrated into actuations mechanisms specifically designed for the ULTRALITE project at Phillips Laboratory.

51 Middlesex St.
N. Chelmsford, MA 01863
(978) 470-1859
Fred W. Geurts
AF 98-060
Title: Light Weight Space Support Structures
Abstract: Depending on the load bearing requirements of a structure, a simple thin film may not be adequate. Since fibers have at least an order of magnitude more strength, and very low elongation, along their axis than fil materials a fiber reinforced structure is necessary in situations which involve heavy loads exposed to gravity, or massive loads undergoing accelerations or decelerations.For space applications, an "optimized structure" is desired which is defined as "the lightest weight structure that can support the design load". Depending on the load requirements two components are needed for an optimized structure. A thin film, which serves as a vapor/gas impermeable inflation layer and an outer fiber based restraining layer.Federal Fabrics-Fibers, Inc. (FFF) produces all sorts of shaped and sized inflatable structures. FFF makes seamless tubes with diameters from 4 to 54 inches and lengths up to 100m. These tubes are woven unsing a proprietary CAD/CAM method. FFF can also produce seamless spheres, arches, circular and elliptic torus and coils. With slight alterations complex surfaces such as parabolas can be produced. Rigid and semi rigid components may be employed to link individual components together to produce complex structures. The structures can be used as booms, solar-array, sun shade, solar concentrator, planar array and reflector antenna supports. Finally these structures are versatile in that they can be used in terrestrial, vacuum, lunar or Martian applications.


(626) 357-9983
AF 98-174
Title: Skytote: An Innovative Aircraft with Unique Performance Capabilities
Abstract: The Skytote concept has emerged from a system analysis seeking a remotely/ autonomously controlled air vehicle for transporting materials -- a vehicle system that emphasizes simplicity, economy, and versatility. In one version it is envisioned as a "virtual convertiplane" (weighing less than 250 lbs) that does not require any physical conversion of configuration going from vertical takeoff to high speed cruise and back with a payload exceeding 400 lbs. It is propeller driven, but no cyclic pitch is needed, and, in the most preferred embodiment, the propeller has fixed pitch. With a wing spanning 20 feet or less, it operates even in fog (but not icing conditions) from a ship or a tiny clearing on shore.


(516) 737-6100
AF 98-185
Title: Fire Suppression by the Selective Excitation of Critical Species
Abstract: A unique, innovative concept is proposed to suppress fires, which does not involve the use of any deleterious material whatever. This concept, when developed into a portable device used in accordance with a protocol to be developed as part of the proposed program, results in an increase in the ignition delay time of hydrocarbon-based flames by many orders-of-magnitude, effectively self-extinguishing the flame or permitting the use of innocuous, conventional flame-extinguishing methods. The approach is based on the fact that the kinetic chain mechanism describing the finite-rate oxidation of hydrocarbon-air mixtures can be diverted into slow-reacting side chains by the introduction of water dissociation products, coupled with the use of selective laser radiation to excite the species that divert the kinetic mechanism into the side chains. As a result, halon 1301 can be replaced by a method involving nothing more than the introduction of water and laser irradiation, perhaps followed by a conventional smothering technique to ensure that no re-ignition of the fire occurs.

2650 East Foothill Boulevard
Pasadena, CA 91107

(626) 792-3000
Dr. Thomas J. Bartolac
AF 98-212
Title: Motion-Detecting Imager Based on Insect Vision for Autonomous Seeker Applications
Abstract: Tanner Research is proposing to develop analog VLSI circuitry for a motion-detecting imager based on the biological paradigm of insect vision, for application to a new class of seekers for autonomous guided weapons.Our hardware development is proposed in the context of eventual application in a "swarm" scenario, in which a relatively large number of simple, cheap autonomous weapons of limited capability are simultaneously deployed in such a way as to insure high probability of mission success. To this end, groundwork for model-building and simulation of autonomous "swarms" will also be laid during the execution of the project. By adopting such an innovative strategic approach, we shall overcome the technical issues that have thwarted the practical application of on-focal-plan motion-sensing imagers in previous experimental implementations.

375 Van Ness Avenue
Torrance, CA 90501

(310) 212-7808
Dr. Barnabas Takacs
AF 98-212
Title: Human Vision Model for Advanced Autonomous Seekers
Abstract: WaveBand Corporation proposes to develop a novel, biological vision model that improves autonomous seeker performance by performing multi-resolution feature extraction at the sensor level, and integrating these extracted features into a consistent representation of the combat scene using a parallel attention model of the Human Visual Systems (HVS). The method, which incorporates our present understanding of the early stages of the HVS, was specifically designed to encode the optimal sets of target features that best characterize any particular class while creating a well separable recognition space that is robust to large variations in viewing/imaging conditions and noise. Specifically, it employs a novel feature extraction process (including light adaptation mechanism) integrated into a multi-resolution attention scheme. The subsequent recognition systems uses parallel visual streams to implement evidence accumulation, pattern completion and recognition, and temporal processing. Based on the proposed biological vision model Waveband will build a robust ATR engine using simulated target data or data provided by the sponsor. The Phase I & II efforts will focus on developing a test bed prototype which will be used to evaluate the system's performance in the context of autonomous seeker technology and real-world target recognition scenarios.

POB 1982
Ormond Beach, FL 32175

(904) 676-7506
Robert C. Ahlert, Ph.D.,
AF 98-258
Title: Two-Step Bioremediation of PCBs in Soils
Abstract: Complex mixtures of polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCBs) are common soil contaminants. Several hundred congeners, together with physical weathering and microbial dechlorination and oxication, add to the complexity of PCB mixtures found inthe environment. PCBs are hydrophobic and associate with soil, whether wet or dry. Excavation is disruptive and often leads to dispersion of fine particles carrying contaminants. Physical separation can concentrate but not destroy PCBs; further, separation is not a viable in-situ process. Purely anaerobic biodegradation is improbable; aerobic dechlorination, followed by mineralization, is possible but undemontrated. Destruction via fungal metabolism has been proposed but has not been demonstrated at full -scale.TWO-STEP MICROBIAL DEGRADATION, ANAEROBIC DECHLORINATION FOLLOWED BY OXIDATION, IS PROPOSED FOR IN-SITU REMEDIATION. Highly chlorinated congeners, i.e., three or more chlorine atoms on Biphenyl, are dechlorinated in place under anaerobic conditions. This process is site specific and requires injection of deaerated water amended with electron acceptor (nitrate), nutrients (if not present in adequate concentration) and a supplementary carbon source. Biodegradation is based on microbial communities present at the site. Dichlor-, monochlor- and base Biphenyl are mineralized microbially via oxidation in a subsequent aerobic process. Humidified air is injected into the soil system that has had anaerobic pretreatment.

2575 Cobb International Blvd., Suite A
Kennesaw, GA 30152

(770) 499-7503
Dr. Tom Mahefkey
BMDO 98-007
Title: Novel Solid State Heat Pipe
Abstract: This proposal addresses development and characterization of a novel multi-layer solid state heat pipe. Prototypes of the device have already demonstrated radial and axial heat fluxes and transport limits comparable to conventional state-of-the-art heat pipes. The anticipated benefits of the device as compared to conventional heat pipes are substantial. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to manufacture, operates over a broad temperature range with a single low vapor pressure working medium, and appears to be both reliable and long- lived. The theory of operation and limits of performance of this device are incomplete at this time, and represent two of the technical goals to be pursued under this Phase I effort.

780 Eden Rd.
Lancaster, PA 17601
(717) 569-6551
Dmitry Khrustalev
BMDO 98-007
Title: Miniature High Flux Heat Pipes for Cooling of Electronics
Abstract: Modern electronic devices dissipate significant amounts of thermal energy at comparatively high heat fluxes up to 200 W/cm2 . Thermal management of power electronics will be very important not only for existing and future DOD applications but also for the success of the electric car, more efficient electric power distribution systems, etc. Heat pipes have been successfully used for cooling of various electric components. Thermacore manufactures miniature heat pipes that can withstand heat fluxes up to 50 W/cm2 on the evaporator wall. However, miniature heat pipes with higher heat fluxes, capable of operating at any orientation in gravity field are yet to be developed. The proposed program will develop innovative high heat flux miniature heat pipes tolerant to accelerations and vibrations, using combined capillary structures with porous metal elements. Prototype miniature heat pipes will be fabricated. Additional benefit of this Phase I program will be the initiation of mathematical modeling of major heat and mass transfer mechanisms in high heat flux two-phase systems, which will be continued and used in the Phase 11 work for optimization of performance characteristics of high heat flux heat pipes.

3740 Hawkins NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
(505) 342-1492
Daniel Skamser
BMDO 98-014
Title: Formation of Hollow Microspheres by Spray Pyrolysis
Abstract: Wireless portable communications is a multi-billion dollar industry that demands ever-faster and smaller cellular devices. The heart of theses devices is the multi-chip module (MCM) which connects the electrical communication components to another, and governs both the speed of communication signals between the components and the size of the portable device. Futrure generations of portable devices require smaller and faster MCMs to meet customer demands. However, the problem of crosstalk between metalization lines develops when the size of the MCM is decreased. This can be minimized by reducing the dielecric constant of the dielecric layers in the MCM substrate. The best way to reduce the dieelctric constant is by adding holllow microspheres which add controlled porosity to dielectric layers of the MCM. Nanochem has a process which can supply alumina microspheres with sizes ranging from 1 to 3 microns and have dense thin-walled shells which are impermeable to water and oil absorption. Optimum conditions will be determined to formt he hollow microspheres. These optimum microspheres will be tested in MCM devices and tested for dielectric properties.

MST, 3200 George Washington Way
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-3365
Donald J. Hammerstrom
CBD 98-202
Title: An Advanced Gas Mask Incorporating A Low Energy corona Plasma Reactor
Abstract: MesoSystems Technology, Inc. and Battelle Memorial Institute propose to design, fabricate, and evaluate a miniature plasma reactor (MPR) system as an augmentation of the current gas mask filter. A laboratory prototype demonstration (Phase I) will be followed by the development and demonstration of a lightweight, partially ruggedized, fieldable unit (Phase II) which will be delivered to the millitary for further evaluation. The proposed technology effectively treats chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents simultaneously.

1555 Wilson Blvd., Suite 320
Arlington, VA 22209

(703) 841-0990
Ralph Chatham
DARPA 98-001
Title: Synthetic Aperture Sonar on Bottom Crawling Platforms for Littoral Warfare Mine Hunting and Mapping
Abstract: Dynamics Technology, Inc. and our hardware/vehicle partner, Foster-Miller, Inc., propose to explore the potential for synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) mounted on small bottom-crawling vehicles (SAS Snoops) to map mines and obstacles covertly in shallow water and surf-zones. We considered other sensor and platform approaches and find them unlikely to yield a comprehensive solution to the operational/technical problems. In Phase I, we propose to measure motion characteristics of bottom crawlers in several environments. We will estimate the acoustic and medium stability properties of these environments from existing databases and use this with the motion information to emulate sensor performance of a SAS system. We will assess the broad trade space available to SAS and determine what additional data must be collected to verify the feasibility of a SAS Snoop system. We will develop a conceptual design for a SAS Snoop to measure this data and to demonstrate operational potential. In Phase II, we would fabricate the prototype SAS Snoop. We would conduct critical surf tests, develop operational concepts and system designs in cooperation with the mine warfare community and commercial/academic organizations who require precise bottom maps in shallow water.

11350 Random Hills Rd., Suite 710
Fairfax, VA 22030

(703) 385-7717
Suman Ganguly
NAVY 98-118
Title: Plasma Antenna
Abstract: The development of stealthy, dynamically reconfigurable antennas that can detect radar signals between 1-40 GHz using plasmas is proposed. The proposed antennas size is small enough to fit in a periscope barrel, with diameter 7 inches and height 3 inches. The reconfigurable antenna is based on capillary plasma discharges. Such discharges require very little energy, and create, highly conducting plasmas with the shape of capillary. Various antenna configurations can be created by synthesizing capillaries, which can receive as well as transmit signals. During the first phase of the proposal trade off studies will be performed to select the optimum design of a plasma antenna configuration, and test a simple dipole configuration of the capillary plasma antenna.


10989 Via Frontera
San Diego, CA 92127
(619) 674-5000
Elwood G. Norris
NAVY 97-103
Title: Ionized Plasma Antenna Development Concept
Abstract: By utilizing ionized conductors as antenna elements (ICA) you can construct an antenna that can be dynamically reconfigured for frequency, directionality, bandwidth, gain and beamwidth. Further, the antenna could be deionized when not in use, which will substantially reduce its radar cross-section and thus it's detectability (stealth). When used as an impulse transmitter, extremely short pulses are possible by deionizing the antenna to prevent ringing associated with traditional antenna configurations, thus combining the benefits of low probability of intercept (outgoing signal) with low probability of detection (stealth). Further, the extremely short impulse(because ringing was prevented) will allow substantially improved wavelet decomposition of the return with less computational overhead. The improved decomposition yields greater accuracy in the target detection and classification algorithms.


130 Woodridge Place
Leonia, NJ 07605
(201) 944-8160
Dr. Behrooz A. Khorramian
OSD 98-002
Title: Crosslinked Fire-Resistant Poly (ethylene terephthalate) for Batting Insulation
Abstract: There is a need for an inexpensive, lighter, effective nonhalogenated, and environmentally friendly fire-resistant (FR) textile material for batting insulation and shell fabrics to be used in ground soldiers combat uniforms. The current FR textile materials are very expensive, ranging in price from $13/pound (Nomex TM) TO $70/pound (polybenzimidazole). Less expensive FR textile material either contains toxic chemicals (e.g., halogenated chemicals) or the level of fire-resistivity is inadequate (e.g., Trevira CS TM) for soldier clothing. Consequently, the environmentally benign, and inherently FR poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, by incorporating nonhalogenated FR additives into PET's chemical structure, followed by crosslinking. Two such additives have been investigated by Material Innovations, Inc. (MII) to develop a FR PET [1]. Although the initial studies were shown to be successful, more research is needed to determine the optimum quantity of each additive to provide the most efficient thermal insulation and compatibility with other technologies used in solder clothing. In Phase II, Thermal Protective Performance, cone calorimetry, thermal conductivity, and moisture vapor permeability testing will be used to evaluate the performance of FR PET followed by producing prototype soldiers combat uniforms with an optimum configuration.

2909 12th Avenue South
Nashville, TN 37204

(615) 292-7022
Dr. Jeffrey S. N. Paine
OSD 98-002
Title: A Highly Damped, High strength, Puncture-resistant Fabric for Multi-threat Protective Uniforms
Abstract: Proposed is an investigation into the use of highly flexible and extremely strong, superelastic, Nitinol shape memory alloy fibers as a means of dramatically increasing the damping properties in and improving cutting and puncture resistance of organic fiber based protective clothing fabrics. The Nitinol fibers are to be used as reinforcement for organic fiber fabrics made from nylon, aramid, polyethylene, polypropylene and other such fibers at low volume fractions to enhance the cut and puncture resistance of the fabrics. Additionally, the Nitinol fibers would be integrated in such a fashion that when the fabric is subjected to heavy vibrational loads, the fibers will cycle through Nitinol's two phase transitions absorbing large amounts of the energy. These Nitinol enhanced fabrics will primarily benefit workers exposed to high-energy airborne vibrations. The increased cutting strength and puncture resistance of the fabric will benefit those in the in the glass-handling, wood-cutting, meat-packing, and metal working industries among others. Because Nitinol's superelastic, they would also benefit from the improved flexibility that the Nitinol would give the protective clothing over present fabrics used. Integrating this new composite fabric into protective gloves for workers using vibrating equipment is particularly viewed as having high potential for commercial development.

650 Nuttman Rd., Suite 114
Santa Clara, CA 95054 Phone:
Topic#: (408) 982-2302
Dr. John Kelly
OSD 98-005 Title: Low Cost Pocket Stove Operating on Military Logistics Fuels Abstract: A simple and Low-Cost Pocket Stove (LCPS) concept has been identified by Altex that can be fired on diesel or JP8 fuel. The stove provides 2,000 Btu/hr heating capacity, weighs less than 2 ounces and is projected to cost $3.00. The stove can be used by soldiers to heat water. Also, the concept can be applied to other small heat driven military devices. Under the Phase I feasibility effort, a proof-of principle stove will be fabricated and tested to demonstrate performance, safety, operation and reliability. The stove will be instrumented with thermocouples and gas emission monitors. Heating performance, emissions, safety and durability will be assessed from test results. At the completion of tests, a burner cost estimate will be prepared with the help of manufacturers. This information, plus fuel costs, will be used to determine the cost of heat produced by the stove. Both performance and cost data will then be compared with fuel bar information, to determine the Benefits of the LCPS versus prior heating methods.

11 Deer Park Drive, Suite 203
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
(732) 274-1470
Dr. Arnold J. Kelly
OSD 98-005
Title: Pocket-Stove
Abstract: A playing-card deck sized, logistics-fuel Pocket Stove design employing a compact, low power electrostaticatomizer is proposed. Micron sized logistic fuel sprays are generated at one bar operating pressure ( 15 psi ) by a Spray Triode electrostatic atomized. A Single "AA" cell, coupled to a compact DC-DC converter provides the low milli-watt level electrical power necessary for over 1000 hours of operation. Battery replacement is not required. Controlled by a single know, the self-dispersive charged spray preferentially flows toward an integral catalytic screen. Requiring a match for ignition and a "standard fuel bottle" pressurized to one bar, the unit is rugged, completely self-contained, and capable of operation in any position. Optionally, the design can accommodate an integral, spring-actuated reservoir capable of providing approximately an hour of isolated, "stand-alone", operation. Operational reliability is enhanced by an anti-clogging design feature. Technically mature technology, and the packaging-ergonomics-usability expertise of Arthur D. Little, Inc., assures that the six-month, Phase I effort will culminate in a prototype Packet Stove design capable of satisfying all of the stated requirements. Prototype Beta-testing and commercial exploitation will be undertaken during the Phase II

George Washington Way
Richland, WA 99352

(509) 375-3365
Charles Call
OSD 98-005
Title: Field Portable Pocket-Stove
Abstract: Commercial camp stoves currently available are too large and heavy for infantry and do not burn readily available logistics fuel. The focus of this proposal is to apply the techniques used for semiconductor manufacturing to produce a lightweight, small, robust micromachined pocket stove. The new micromachining techniques allow materials other than silicon to have sub-millimeter structures imprinted onto them. For example, metals such as copper, steel, and aluminum can have microchannels cut into their surfaces to produce a microchannel heat exchanger. These microchannel heat exchangers have exhibited heat transfer in excess of 100 watts per square centimeter. The coupling of these microchannels heat exchangers with minicombustors creates a new approach to pocket stoves.

115 Ventura Drive
Bridgeport, WV 26330

(605) 692-7977
Dr. Douglas Miron
SOCOM 98-004
Title: Suprises and Opportunities
Abstract: Emergent Technologies Corp. (ETC) in conjunction with research partners at West Virginia University has developed and recently patented an innovation antenna that promises to revolutionize the science of antenna design, construction and utilization. The antenna, labeled the Countrawound Toroidal Helical Antenna (CTTHA), offers a number of significant advantages over conventional antennas. The CTHA's unique nearly isotopic radiation pattern are ideal for highly mobile platforms. It is extremely small, (about 1/20th the size of the smallest GPS antenna) and light weigh make it ideal for tactical applications yet provided superior communications performance. The donut shaped CTHA appears to exhibit some of the properties of so-called "Slow wave" devices. It consists of two helical wire radiating elements wrapped around a toroidal core. The two elements are of opposing handedness, creating a number of cross over points around the toroid. At least 17 different design parameters have been identified that impact the CTHA performance. Preliminary test results provide a high degree of confidence that further development of CTHA technology will result in significant benefits to very wide range of antenna users. ETC believes that the CTHA technology, as we continue to research, develop and engineer the antenna's various characteristics, will nature to provide a new generation of lightweight, low profile antennas suitable for a wide range of military and commercial applications.

727 Airport Blvd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108

(734) 668-2567
Nestor Vornka
ARMY 98-065
Title: Parachute Automatic Activation Device (ADD) for Low Altitude Jumps
Abstract: When a parachute malfunctions, it is critical that the jumper deploy the reserve parachute quickly to ensure that the reserve canopy has adequate time to inflate and slow his descent. Minimum container opening altitudes above the ground for recreational skydivers are at least 2000 feet AGL, which affords the jumper enough time to determine his canopy status and activate the reserve if necessary. Skydiving students are required to use Automatic Activation Devices (AADs), however experienced skydivers do not use AADs because they are prohibitively expensive. Military combat and training jumps are often done from 500 feet AGL and there is very little time to determine whether a malfunction exists. Consequently, the use of an AAD is highly recommended since the jumpers reaction time may be inadequate to ensure a safe landing. There are commercially available AADs that can function in a military setting, however their use is cost prohibitive in a mass tactical setting. We propose to develop a cost effective AAD suitable for low altitude jumps that utilizes accelerometers and pressure sensors to determine the jumpers rate of descent, altitude and acceleration. By utilizing high performance low cost sensors, a reasonably priced device can be manufactured for military use. BENEFITS: The currently available AADs are very expensive: the Cypress 1-pin Expert sells for $1 175, the Astra l-pin Expert sells for $950 and the FXC 12000 sells for $875. We plan to offer a comparable device for under $400 which is less than half of the cost of the other devices. At this lower price, more skydivers will be able to afford an AAD, which would increase the overall safety of the sport.

245 West Roosevelt Systems
Chicago, IL 60185
(630) 876-8981
Dr. Donald E. Yuhas
ARMY 98-088
Title: Near Surface Imaging in Soils for Archeological Assessments
Abstract: Once a cultural or archaeological resource site has been identified, it must be assessed in order to determine its significance and eligibility for National Registry of Historic Places (Executive Order 11593). Currently, there is no reliable, non-invasive method for determining the number of buried artifacts, or their characteristics. Thus, the significance of the archeological resource cannot be determined. The objective of the proposed research program is to demonstrate the feasibility for detecting and imaging subsurface cultural artifacts using acoustic energy. Recent studies have indicated the potential of low frequency acoustics as a modality suitable for finding and imaging buried objects in soil. In the proposed Phase I program, we develop acoustic transmitting and receiving sensors, which are optimized for imaging in soil. Using these sensors, acoustic echo data is collected in soils containing buried metallic and nonmetallic test objects. By exploiting existing processing methods developed for radar ranging and medical imaging, images of the buried objects are reconstructed and evaluated. BENEFITS: Pavement inspection, tunnel inspection, location of underground pipes, cables, commercial archeological assessment, and detection of unexploded ordinance.

2201 Buena Vista Dr. SE, Suite 211
Albuquerque, NM 87106

(505) 998-4000
Joseph Barfoot
ARMY 98-109
Title: Remote "Non-Contact" Environmental Sensing and Communication Device
Abstract: Internal temperature of a howitzen prepellant grain mill be measured through the use of a Radio Frequency Identification (RRID) tag and, remote reader. Temperature is calculated from the changing response of the tags normal characteristic return to the reader as a functions of temperature. The resultant system will provide very small (approx. 1 x .25 x .02) and relatively inexpensive expendable device that will completely combust then the propellant grain is ignited. The system wil1 have a temperature resolution of about +/- 5 degrees Celsius in its initial configuration with several methods available to increase sensity. BENEFITS: Frozen foods monitoring, industrial mass monitoring, biolgical monitoring when lot data and temperature must be remotely readable.

P.O. Box 71, Etna Rd.
Hanover, NH 03755

(603) 643-3800
David B. Kynor
ARMY 98-165
Title: High Resolution Subsurface Acoustic Soil Imaging
Abstract: Site characterization on military bases includes the detection of hazardous materials and artifacts buried in the ground as well as an assessment of subsurface layering and groundwater properties. Currently available technology develops, at best, poor-quality images and also has a limited-detection sensitivity for non-metallic objects. Creare proposes to develop an acoustic soil imaging system to address all these needs. The Creare design is built around a novel acoustic array configuration designed to produce images of high resolution, compared to present methods, of objects buried in the upper 10 meters of the soil. Image generation and evaluation times will be significantly smaller than times required by current methods. The system features a sparse array of dynamically focused imaging transducers. This system leverages Creates experience in developing state-of-the-art medical ultrasound instruments and is designed to overcome the unique challenges created by the acoustic properties of soil. BENEFITS: The technology developed under this program will meet the Army's need for high-resolution imaging of geological structures. Besides providing a tool for rapid detection and identification of hazardous materials, the technology developed under this program may also be used on military and civilian construction projects to locate other buried objects such as pipes and conduits.

310 N. Dixon Ave
Cary, NC 27513

(919) 461-3773
Michael Pennington
DARPA 98-023
Title: Synthetic Muscle Effector for Micro-Robotic Taggant Platforms
Abstract: The internet of this work is to develop an effector for a micro-robotic taggant sensor platform. The effector is the system component which enables motion and allows the platforms to manipulate its environment. It will be capable of propelling the entire platform and physically attaching it to other objects. The effector is configured as a synthetic muscle which is capable of large amplitude deformation (up to 30% in the direction of motion) and substantial force. It is made of a high temperature metallized plastic and consumes power only when it is moving. In addition, it will be extremely lightweight (density about 1g/cc), capable of high speed proportional response, and of being mass produced in sizes from the 0.6 mm3 Phase I prototype to very large devices. Because of its symmetry the effector will not emit electromagnetic radiation during operation and it may also serve as a displacement sensor. In Phase I we will construct and test a prototype as well as define the materials, fabrication, and design of the Phase II devices.

11 Bridge Square
Northfield, MN 55057

(507) 663-1399
Robert Palmquist
NAVY 98-144
Title: Wearable Language Translation System
Abstract: Mobile Translator Mission Statement: To develop a near real-time, two-way, mobile, lightweight, robust and low-cost multilingual language translation device that can be operated with minimal training in a hands-free manner. The object of this Phase I research effort is to investigate the scientific, technical and commercial merit and feasibility of the system described in the preceding mission statement. Specifically, the team will investigate design options for the mobile translator, identify potential applications, and select the best option to pursue in making the design a reality. Three technical areas will be investigated; the mobile computer platform, the operator interface, and the language translation software. The commercial feasibility of this design will also be investigated. This includes identifying potential applications, languages to be supported, cost, and user requirements such as acceptable system weight and battery life. By combining both the commercial and technical elements, a complete definition of a successful mobile, near real-time language translation device will be achieved. A prototype system will be developed and demonstrated and a final report written documenting the Phase I results and recommendations for follow-on research and development in Phase II. Options are included for incorporating additional language pairs into the system and application specific terminology.

ITHACA, NY 14850

(607) 255-6474
Dr. Czeslaw Golkowski
AF 99-167
Title: Soot Removal from Diesel Exhaust Engine Using Microwaves
Abstract: Responding to the need to decrease soot emission from combustion engines, we propose the development of an innovative method for an effective, low cost destruction and removal of soot from diesel engine exhaust. Unlike other conventional methods which first separate soot from the exhaust gas and then burn it by raising the temperature of the trapped soot, the proposed method uses properties of non-thermal plasma to generate free radicals to oxidize the soot directly in the exhaust gas. The potential of the approach for soot oxidation presented here stems from the fact that free radicals react with diesel particulates (soot) in a way normally associated with a very high temperature, much higher than the actual ignition temperature for these particulates. The free radicals will be generated in the exhaust gas containing soot. The proposed device will cause a minimal, if any, pressure drop in the exhaust stream; moreover, its only energy requirement is the relatively low average power supply to its magnetron. It is expected that this device will operate in a wide range of temperatures of the engine cycle, and will be maintenance free.

15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649

(714) 903-1000
Jay B. Clecker
AF 99-180
Title: Ordnance Research
Abstract: New weapon capabilities identified for the 21st century include countering weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and non-explosive force projection. Current weapon systems do not have capabilities that can meet these objectives. High intensity acoustic weapons can meet any new requirements such as nonlethal effects and removing suspended WMD agents from the air. High intensity sound sources packaged into a compact, air delivered ordnance will provide the warfighter with an ability to counter many new threat scenarios. Prior acoustic weapons developed for ground operations don't meet the weight/volume restrictions for air delivered warhead missions. SARA proposed a seminal demonstration, at the laboratory level, of a compact, high energy, acoustic source that will be the key enabling technology in harnessing acoustic weapons for compact air delivered/air dispensed weapons. This technology (on follow on programs) when scaled up and fully integrated into a warhead will provide the ability to project nonlethal force and to control collateral chemical/biological agent releases.

2235 Polvorosa AvenueSuite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577

(510) 483-4156
Dr. John Edighoffer
AF 99-314
Title: Temporally and Spatially Resolved Spectrograph for 15-300 keV X-Rays
Abstract: Present day pulsed power generators provide such intense sources of bremsstrahlung that may radiation diagnostics are overwhelmed in the near field of the source. Time-integrated radiation-dose maps and spectral measurements are usually made in the near field with TLDs, while time-resolved spectral measurements are typically made in the far field with Si PIN diodes. There is a thus need for compact, time-resolved detectors that can be located in the near field along with a test object to determine the spatial distribution and the bremsstrahlung spectrum on "test" shots. AASC proposes to develop an instrument to measure the x-ray dose, uniformity and spectrum over a large surface area at the position of a test object in a high dose x-ray simulator with spatial and temporal resolution. In Phase I a prototype instrument will be validated on the MBS simulator at the Arnold Engineering and Development Center. MSB produces a dose of order 1 mca/cm2 with a 30-40 ns pulse-width over an area of 100 cm2. After the Phase I validation, the Phase II goal is to scale the instrument up to measure radiation from the Decade Quad source of about 20 krad (Si), 40-50 ns pulse-width, and 2500 cm2 area.


(256) 721-9550
BMDO 99-003
Abstract: The objective of this effort is to determine the feasibility of designing, fabricating and testing a sensor cooler which uses solid materials as the refrigerant. These materials demonstrate the unique property known as the magnetocaloric effect, which means that they increase and decrease in temperature when magnetized/demagnetized. This effect has been observed for many years and was used for cooling near absolute zero. Recently, materials are being developed which have sufficient temperature and entropy change to make them useful for a wide range of temperature applications. The proposed effort includes magnetocaloric effect material selection, analyses, design and integration of components into a preliminary design. Benefits of this design are lower cost, longer life, lower weight and higher efficiency because it only requires one moving part - the rotating disk on which the magneto caloric material is mounted. The unit uses no gas compressor, no pumps, no working fluid, no valves, and no ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons/hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CFC's/HCFC's). Potential commercial applications include cooling of electronics, superconducting components used in telcommunications equipment (cell phone base stations), home and commercial refrigerators, heat pumps, air conditioning for homes, offices and automobiles, and virtually any place that refrigeration is needed.

113B West Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054

(609) 608-0311
Nalin Kumar
BMDO 99-003
Title: A Highly Efficient Thermoelectric Cryocooler
Abstract: There is a need for a compact, reliable, long life, low cost, low power consumption and low maintenance cryogenic cooler for infrared cooling applications. Currently available cryogenic systems have unreliable mechanically moving parts leading to less than desired lifetime. The current solid state thermoelectric coolers suffer from low efficiency and limitations on lowest achievable temperatures. We propose an advanced thermoelectric cryocooler concept that uses an innovative approach to combine a standard thermoelectric cooler with rapidly emerging vacuum microelectronic device technology. Most thermoelectric coolers have low efficiency due to the fact that all good thermoelectric materials also have relatively good thermal conductivity resulting in loss of cooling from the cold plate to the hot plate. We propose to increase the efficiency and temperature differential by inserting vacuum microelectronic devices in the n- and p- semiconductor legs of thermoelectric cooler. These devices have the property that they are good electrical conductors while being poor thermal conductors. Thus they act as thermal breaks without significantly affecting the electrical/thermoelectric behavior of the cooler. In Phase-I, we will perform closely coupled theoretical and experimental investigations to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. In Phase-II, we will fabricate and optimize various cooler device structures.

P.O.Box 1361
Boulder, CO 80306

(303) 447-2917
Ran Yaron
BMDO 99-007
Title: Bubble Refrigerator
Abstract: Advanced Refrigeration Technologics, Inc. proposes to BMDO a dual use opportunity for a core technology devices. Device capable to convert efficiently electrical power to mechanical work at over 50 W/mm3, which is over l,000 times higher then any other motor, piezoelectric or smart material. The entire device will be constructed with micro-machining technologies used in the semiconductor industry resulting in micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) few mm in size running at 100,000 Hz and comparable in refrigeration power to conventional refrigerator more than 1,000 times in size.

93 Border St
West Newton, MA 02465

(617) 965-4872
Raymond Carroll, PhD.
BMDO 99-016
Title: Rugged MEMS Nano-g Accelerometer With An Effectively Free Proof Mass
Abstract: MSSA has discovered a mechanical means that can improve drift stability and sensitivity of MEMS accelerometers by orders of magnitude. This will make ultra-precise nano-g accelerometers feasible. We have a unique means that gives a flexure pivoted reference pendulum the appearance of being an inertially free pendulum, it is this discovery that will transform a moderately performing rugged accelerometer into a precision instrument that maintains its ruggedness and is capable of very long term bias stability. With the elimination of bias errors from flexure torques, it’s feasible to evacuate the accelerometer and reduce random walk to a negligible level. This allows the accelerometer to sense vibrations as well as very low frequency motions. The nano-g accelerometer will be capable of exhibiting high sensitivities, while at the same time be capable of measuring large input levels; which is not possible in traditional MEMS accelerometer designs. Consequently, the nano-g accelerometer will operate as a true inertial displacement sensor with displacement errors that are bounded over substantial time intervals. It’s the purpose of this program to demonstrate analytically and experimentally, that a flexure pivoted reference pendulum can perform as if it were an inertially free pendulum.

Parachutes are for Pussies!

350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154
(781) 684-4394
James Carter
DARPA 99-022
Title: High-Low Altitude Single Soldier Precise Delivery Systems
Abstract: As rogue nations continue to develop weapons of mass destruction, the need for accurate, real-time intelligence gathered on site increases. Typically, sites of interest exist deep in denied territory. To be truly effective, a sensor package would have to be delivered covertly from a significant standoff. One possibility would be a platform capable of carrying a significant payload which could be released covertly from a commercial air-lane. The payload might be a single human occupant, or a suite of sensors capable of measuring and analyzing a variety of inputs, making real-time assessment a reality. Foster-Miller and its partner AeroVironment propose to meet this requirement with an aircraft based system. AeroVironment propose to meet this requirement with an aircraft based system. AeroVironment will modify an existing system to develop a suitable airframe. The aircraft will drop the payload over the target. Whether the payload is an electronic package or a human being, there is a limit to the amount of shock which can be applied to it and still have it survive. Foster-Miller has developed similar shock mitigation systems previously, and brings the necessary expertise and experience into the package protection phase of the mission. It is the design of this shock mitigation system which is the subject of the proposal.

9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733

(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael Dingus
NAVY 99-104
Title: Towed System Marine Life Attack Reduction
Abstract: Navy Submarine Towed Acoustical Array Systems are experiencing loss and damage due to attacks from marine life such as sharks and other fish. During the period of 1993 to1995, over 20 TB-16 Kings Bay Georgia based arrays were replaced due to suspected marine life attack, costing millions of dollars. Research into the cause of these attacks is needed, along with solutions and/or countermeasures the can be implemented without reducing performance. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. will team with Dr. Philip Motta of the University of South Florida and Dr. Timothy Tricas of the Florida Institute of Technology to investigate this problem. Information acquired from NAVSEA will be used to determine possible features of the array that attract fishbite. Array segment test articles will be prepared and exposed to sharks during static and towed tests. An underwater projector will be used to introduce acoustic signals to the sharks and their response observed. Attraction by odor will be investigated using static test articles fabricated from array materials. Damaged test articles will be analyzed to identify the responsible marine species. A Phase II test plan will be prepared that includes attractant masking and active deterrents during actual towed array field tests.

35617 Pond Dr
Fremont, CA 94536

(510) 792-9249
Thor N. Juneau
ARMY 97-001
Title: MEMS Based Sensors, Systems and Algorithms for Weapon Stabilization
Abstract: The military has an unfulfilled need for high performance yet low cost weapon stabilization and fire control systems. Macroscopic technology fails to deliver low cost, while present micromachining technology fails to deliver adequate drift and noise performance. Integrated Micro Instruments (IMI) proposes to manufacture advanced gun turret control systems by micromachining novel sensors providing miniaturization and cost reduction without sacrificing performance. IMI was formed from the core DARPA-sponsored Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center (BSAC) design team which produced some of the first integrated microaccelerometers and gyroscopes as well as the first micro-IMET on a fingernail-sized silicon chip. Under a separate contract, these proven sensor architectures will be combined with a deep trench micromachining technology developed at BSAC providing dramatically increased sensitivity and hence improved performance. Integrating circuits with these sensors will allow drift cancellation, exceptional miniaturization, and digital output. This proposal will involve integrating these sensors into weapon stabilization systems. Phase I will focus on sensor refinement, robust packaging, sensor fusion, and weapon control algorithms. Sensor and system design plus sensor prototypes will verify feasibility and allow rapid fabrication of functional units in Phase II. BENEFITS: Market research firms forecast inexpensive, micromachined inertial sensors to command a market of over $lB with unit sales in the tens of millions by 2000. High volume commercial applications such as automotive safety, virtual reality, 3-D computer mice, and machine monitoring already incorporate miniature sensors which can be vastly improved using this technology.

10451 Vista Park Rd
Dallas, TX 75238

(214) 503-3363
George S. Nolas
ARMY 97-011
Title: Filled Skutterudites: Potential for Thermoelectric Cooling Applications
Abstract: The skutterudite system is most interesting due to the market reduction in the thermal conductivity upon filling the voids in the structure. Recently data has been presented showing this material system to possess a relatively large figure of merit at high temperatures. However, the effect of the "void-filler" atoms is most prominent below room temperature where the lattice thermal conductivity reduction is well over an-order-of-magnitude. Indeed this system was originally chosen for the investigation of thermoelectrics properties engineering whereby the thermal conductivity of a material can be severely degraded with a minimal affect on the electronic properties. The successful application of this approach would result in a very large figure of merit. In this Phase I Marlow Industries proposes to investigate the feasibility of the filled skutterudite system as thermoelectric cooling materials. This is where we believe the potential lies for this material system. The key technical challenge, however, is in further reducing the lattice thermal conductivity towards its theoretical minimum. When this goal is realized optimization of the filled skutterudites at and below room temperature can begin. BENEFITS: High performance thermoelectric coolers would open potential applications such as medical instruments, microprocessor and electronic cooling, portable refrigerators and freezers, air conditioning and eventually for cooling superconductors.

350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02154

(617) 622-5504
Thoms Campbell
ARMY 97-030
Title: High Strength, Lightweight Cable/Tape for Cargo-Handling Winches
Abstract: This program will develop a high performance flat braided tension member for cargo handling hoists on the Army's CH47 Advanced cargo Aircraft (ACA). The development of much thinner tape, made possible by use of high strength liquid crystal polymer, PBO, will increase the available tension member length, offering greater stand off capability. Alternatively, the thinner tape will enable a smaller diameter winch, thus further reducing the hoist system weight. Foster-Miller will use a unique flat braiding process to produce a flat tape that will support an 18,000 lb. load with a safety factor of 5:1. The flat braid will greatly reduce the transverse expansion of the tape when wound on the drum under a load. Flat braiding will allow the needed electrical wires to be integrated into the tape and still be thinner than the current tape. Foster-Miller will work closely with Breeze Eastern Inc. who is considered the leader in hoist development for helicopters. The Phase I program will develop braid design and result in fabrication and preliminary testing of braided tape. Testing will include fatigue tests around a simulated winch. A Phase II program is anticipated to produce a 100 ft. length of tape that can be installed on an aircraft hoist system and tested. Foster-Miller will work closely with Breeze Eastern, Inc. to develop a tape that can be integrated into their current tape hoist system. A lighter, more robust tape and hoist system is anticipated as the Phase II program result. BENEFITS: Foster-Miller is actively pursuing further production and development opportunities for our flat braiding technology. Flat braiding offers capabilities no other braider can offer. We believe that the cargo tape product is a perfect example of the types of products Foster-Miller can produce. It is the intention of Foster-Miller to pursue various commercialization routes for the cargo tape technology.

2640 S. Raritan Circle
Englewood, CO 80110

(303) 922-7773
Sidney Gluckman
DARPA 97-082
Title: Robotic Mechanisms Capable of Attaching Themselves to Moving Ground Vehicles
Abstract: This proposal introduces an innovative robotic mechanism and control system designed to localize, track, and attach itself to a moving ground vehicle. Our proposed design is presented in detail, however the Phase I effort will evaluated a range of alternatives for all major components using a Kepner Tregoe analysis. This vehicle has many applications such as tracking and targeting enemy vehicles, reconaissance, miscelaneous payload delivery, and restricted facility entrance. The proposed system would be capable of both supervised teleoperated control and unsupervised autonomous control. Utilizing an optimized radio control car chassis and a modular control system design the robot will be capable of traversing a variety of terrains and engaging many different types of vehicles. An innovative mechanical engagement system is proposed. A collection of behavior control algorithms utilizing an optimized navigational sensor suite govern the robot's navigation, control, and the deployment of the mechanical engagement system. Target acquisition, tracking, engagement, and obstacle avoidance are all supported behaviors using a suite of sensors including a visual tracking system for real-time control.

9363 Towne Centre Dr.
San Diego, CA 92121
(619) 455-5530
S Marple
DARPA 97-088
Title: Autonomous Underground Microborer for Characterization of Deeply Buried Underground Facilities
Abstract: Although construction and entrances of deeply buried underground facilities (UGFs) may be detected by remote surveillance assets available to U.S. forces, detailed internal characterization and 24-hour monitoring of denied access facilities cannot be accomplished by current remote sensors and has therefore depended heavily on human intelligence (humint) resources, which are often not available or may be unreliable. An innovative system concept is presented for a stealthy autonomous underground microborer (AUM) to deliver sensors to designated positions near or into a UGF by microboring through the ground with a rock-melting penetrator. For an entrance monitoring mission, the AUM would carry electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) imaging and/or audio sensors periscoped to ground level near an entrance. For a UGF mapping mission, the AUM would carry a ground-penetrating radar transmitter to perform bistatic tomographic imaging of the UGF in conjunction with stealthy receiving unattended ground sensors (UGS). For an internal access mission, the AUM would carry EO/IR, audio, and/or radiological/chemical sniffers to be placed in or through walls of a UGF chamber.

1000 Fremont Ave, Suite K
Los Altos, CA 94024
Topic#: (408) 773-8240
Donald Barrick
DARPA 97-088
Title: ELF/VLF Electromagnetic Detection and Characterization of Deeply
Buried Targets
Abstract: We propose to provide a numerical capability to map the ELF/VLF
electric and magnetic fields above the ground, as perturbed by threat
underground structures of interest to the DoD. MATLAB source code will be
delivered that will produce these perturbed fields as a function of radio
frequency, as well as values for the unperturbed background field and the
external noise. The latter two signals are the primary limiting factors to
the sensitivity of any low-frequency surveillance system. Two sources will
be employed in the calculations of the perturbed fields: 1) distant
HAARP/HIPAS low-frequency modulated signals; 2) a local source, for example
from a coil near the surveillance area. This phenomenological capability is
sorely lacking at present, as various sensor and surveillance concepts are
being designed and offered for subsurface monitoring. There is little basis
for assessing feasibility or performance effectiveness among proposed
candidates. The MATLAB package we will deliver will be comprised of
extensive tools our company already has in place, modified and adapted to
handle subsurface DoD threat objects and the above two radio signal sources.
Example calculations will be provided to demonstrate how the code is used,
and to give feasibility estimates for the most obvious system
implementations of such sensors. The output of Phase I will form the basis
of the Phase II effort to: a) design, model, prototype, and test and ELF/VLF
sensor, and b) use ELF/VLF field maps to examine the methodology for
inverting/extracting information about underground structures.